Reconstruction (USHC 3.3)

Report
USHC 3.3
Analyze
the
effects
of
Reconstruction on the southern
states and on the role of the federal
government, including the impact of
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and
fifteenth
amendments
on
opportunities for African Americans.
Color Palette by GamehenGraphics
“With malice toward none, with
charity for all, with firmness in
the right as God gives us to see
the right, let us strive on to finish
the work we are in, to bind up the
nation's wounds… to do all which
may achieve and cherish a just
and lasting peace among
ourselves and with all nations.”
-- Abraham Lincoln
Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1865
MAGNANIMOUS
10% of 1860 Voters
1. Oath to the U.S.
2. Accept Emancipation
Louisiana and Arkansas Re-admitted
Sic Semper
Tyrannis!
President Andrew
Johnson continued
Lincoln’s lenient
Reconstruction plan.
•
•
•
•
Thirteenth Amendment
Freedmen’s Bureau
Sharecropping
Black Codes
FRANCHISE
And Not This Man?
Ratified December 6, 1865
Neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude,
except as a punishment
for crime where of the
party shall have been
duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States,
or any place subject to
their jurisdiction.
RECONSTRUCTION
AMENDMENTS:
13
14
15
Sharecropping
Tenant Farming
Passed in many
Southern states to
restrict the activities
of freedmen
Established by
Congress in 1865
to help former
slaves.
– Education
– Healthcare
– Job Placement
From Harper’s Weekly, 1868
Presidential
Congressional
(aka, Radical)
GOALS:
1. Punish the South.
2. Protect African
Americans.
Thaddeus Stevens (PA)
HOUSE
The Radicals proposed dividing the
former Confederate states (minus
Tennessee) into five military districts.
1867-1868
1
2
3
Military
IMMEDIATE
Occupation
Suffrage
Forced
Ratification
of the
South
for
African Americans
of the
Fourteenth
Amendment
Photo Credits: Peter Clark (soldier)
FutUndBeidl (ballot box)
Congress overrode all of
Johnson’s vetoes of the
Reconstruction Acts.
Impeachment
Photo Credit: Nancy Lehrer
By the Numbers
2–1–0
2
Presidents have
been impeached
by Congress.
Photo Credit: Nancy Lehrer
1
President has
resigned
from office.
0
Presidents have
been removed
from office.
But Johnson was
only ONE vote shy.
Ratified July 9, 1868
Section 1. All persons born or
naturalized in the United States…
are citizens of the United States
and of the State wherein they
reside. No State shall make or
enforce any law which shall
abridge the privileges or
immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State
deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property, without due process
of law; nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws.
RECONSTRUCTION
AMENDMENTS:
13
14
15
Ratified February 3, 1870
Section 1. The right of
citizens of the United
States to vote shall not
be denied or abridged
by the United States or
by any State on account
of race, color, or
previous condition of
servitude.
RECONSTRUCTION
AMENDMENTS:
13
14
15
RECONSTRUCTION
AMENDMENTS:
13
14
15
Reconstruction
in the South
1867-1877
USHC 3.4
Summarize the end of Reconstruction,
including the role of anti–African American
factions and competing national interests
in undermining support for Reconstruction;
the impact of the removal of federal
protection for freedmen; and the impact of
Jim Crow laws and voter restrictions on
African American rights in the postReconstruction era.
Carpetbag
“Carpetbaggers”
Nickname applied by
Southern whites to
people who migrated
South after the Civil War
The
“Carpetbagger”
Stereotype
Click to play!
“Carpetbaggers”
Individual carpetbaggers’
goals were diverse:
•
•
•
•
Power
Opportunity
Wealth
Service
Educating Freedmen and Women
Hampton Institute (VA)
Late Nineteenth Century
Although many carpetbaggers went
South to seek fortune and political
office, many went South to educate
freedmen and women.
The Republican Coalition
in the South
“Carpetbaggers”
“Scalawags”
Freedmen
Resistance
to Reconstruction
The (First) Ku Klux Klan
1865-1874
Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest,
CSA
Vigilantism
Restoration of Southern “Home Rule”
1869-1877
1869
1870
1869
1877
1874
1876 1874
1873
1871
1877
1877
1874
Northern public opinion
turns against Radical
Reconstruction.
Perception of
“Colored Rule”
and corruption in the South
under Carpetbag state
governments
http://blackhistory.harpweek.com/7illustrat
ions/reconstruction/coloredrule.htm
1874 Congressional Elections
U.S. House
of Representatives
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
VOTERS REACT TO:
• Bad Economy
• Political Corruption
• Reconstruction Policy
Republicans
Democrats
1872
1874
Democratic
Platform
Election of 1876
Republican
Platform
Tilden: 184
Hayes: 166
Disputed: 19
FTW: 185
1868
1872
1876
http://elections.harpweek.com/controversy.htm
Compromise of 1877
DISPUTED ELECTION
184
Samuel Tilden
(D-NY)
166Rutherford B. Hayes
185
(R-OH)
“Rutherfraud”
“Redeemer” Governments
Southern White “Bourbon”
Democrats re-assert
authority
“Solid South”
– DEMOCRATIC STRONGHOLD
• Republican Party a non-entity in
Southern politics until the 1960s
Gov. Wade Hampton (SC)
The “Solid South”
Almost 50 Years Later
Jim Crow
“Jim Crow” Laws
Racial Segregation
Segregation
and Voting Restrictions
Literacy Tests
Poll Tax
Designed to keep Black
citizens from voting
Grandfather
Clause
The Supreme Court
and Civil Rights
(Late Nineteenth Century)
In the late 19th century,
the Supreme Court
upheld Jim Crow, as well
as restrictions on voting
(since these restrictions did
not explicitly discriminate
based on race).
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896)
• Louisiana Racial Segregation Case
• “Separate But Equal”
• Overturned by Brown v. Board (1954)
14

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