LSS Measure Tollgate Templates

Report

Lean Six
Sigma
Measure
Phase
Tollgate
Review
Lean Six Sigma
DMAIC Tools and Activities
 Review
 Value
 Identify
 Validate
Project Charter
High-Level Value
Stream Map and Scope
 Validate Voice of the
Customer
& Voice of the Business
 Validate Problem Statement
and Goals
 Validate Financial Benefits
 Create Communication Plan
 Select and Launch Team
 Develop Project Schedule
 Complete Define Tollgate
 Identify
Stream Map Flow
Key Input, Process
and Output Metrics
 Develop Operational
Definitions
 Develop Data Collection Plan
 Validate Measurement
System
 Collect Baseline Data
 Determine Process Capability
 Complete Measure Tollgate
 Reduce
Define
Measure
 Project
 Value
 Voice
 Process
Charter
of the Customer and
Kano Analysis
 SIPOC Map
 Project Valuation/ROIC
Analysis Tools
 RACI and Quad Charts
 Stakeholder Analysis
 Communication Plan
 Effective Meeting Tools
 Inquiry and Advocacy Skills
 Time Lines, Milestones,
and Gantt Charting
 Pareto Analysis
Stream Mapping
Cycle
Efficiency/Little’s Law
 Operational Definitions
 Data Collection Plan
 Statistical Sampling
 Measurement System
Analysis (MSA)
 Gage R&R
 Kappa Studies
 Control Charts
 Spaghetti Diagrams
 Histograms
 Normality Test
 Process Capability Analysis
Root Causes
List of Potential Root
Causes
 Confirm
Root Cause to
Output Relationship
 Estimate Impact of Root
Causes on Key Outputs
 Prioritize Root Causes
 Value-Add Analysis
 Takt Rate Analysis
 Quick Wins
 Statistical Analysis
 Complete Analyze Tollgate
Analyze
 Process
Constraint ID and
Takt Time Analysis
 Cause & Effect Analysis
 FMEA
 Hypothesis Tests/Conf.
Intervals
 Simple & Multiple Regression
 ANOVA
 Components of Variation
 Conquering Product and
Process Complexity
 Queuing Theory
 Develop
Potential Solutions
Select, and
Optimize Best Solutions
 Develop ‘To-Be’ Value
Stream Map(s)
 Develop and Implement Pilot
Solution
 Implement 5s Program
 Develop Full Scale
Implementation Plan
 Cost/Benefit Analysis
 Benchmarking
 Complete Improve Tollgate
 Evaluate,
 Develop
SOP’s, Training
Plan & Process Controls
 Implement Solution and
Ongoing Process
Measurements
 Confirm Attainment of Project
Goals
 Identify Project Replication
Opportunities
 Training
 Complete Control Tollgate
 Transition Project to Process
Owner
Improve
 Replenishment Pull/Kanban
 Stocking Strategy
 Process Flow Improvement
 Process Balancing
 Analytical Batch Sizing
 Total Productive Maintenance
 Design of Experiments (DOE)
 Solution Selection Matrix
 Piloting and Simulation
 Work Control System
 Setup reduction
 Pugh Matrix
 Pull System
Control
 Mistake-Proofing/
Zero Defects
Operating
Procedures (SOP’s)
 Process Control Plans
 Visual Process Control Tools
 MGPP
 Statistical Process Controls
(SPC)
 Solution Replication
 Visual Workplace
 Metrics
 Project Transition Model
 Team Feedback Session
 Standard
Kaizen Events Targeted in Measure to Accelerate Results
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
2
Project Charter
Financial Impact
Problem/Goal Statement
Problem: Describe problem in non-technical terms
 Statement should explain why project is important; why
working on it is a priority
Goal: Goals communicate “before” and “after” conditions

Shift mean, variance, or both?

Should impact cost, time, quality dimensions
 Express goals using SMART criteria

Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Resource
Requirements, Time Boundaries
 Explain leverage and strategic implications (if any)
Team








State financial impact of project
 Expenses
 Investments (inventory, capital, A/R)
 Revenues
Separate “hard” from “soft” dollars
State financial impact of leverage opportunities (future
projects)
Tollgate Review Schedule
PES Name
Project Executive Sponsor (if different from PS)
PS Name
Project Sponsor/Process Owner
DC Name
Deployment Champion
GB/BB Name
Green Belt/Black Belt
MBB Name
Master Black Belt
Core Team
Role
% Contrib.
LSS Training
 Team Member 1
SME
XX
YB
 Team Member 2 TM
XX
GB
 Team Member 3 SME
XX
PS
Extended Team
 Team Member 1 BFM
XX
Not Trained
 Team Member 2 IT
XX
Not Trained
Tollgate
Scheduled
Revised
Define:
XX/XX/XX
Measure:
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
Analyze:
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
Improve:
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
Control:
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
 Review high-level schedule milestones here:
 Phase Completions
 Tollgate Reviews
Complete
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
XX/XX/XX
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
3
Data Collection Plan
Performance
Measure
Operational
Definition
Data Source
and Location
How Will Data
Be Collected
Who Will
Collect Data
When Will Data
Be Collected
Sample
Size
Stratification
Factors
How will data
be used?
VOC
MSA
Process
VSM
Financials
Others






For each performance measure (Y), update a data collection plan
Include MSA measure plan (Gantt chart, MS project plan is Optional)
Add Financial measure plan if separate from performance Y
Add any Time Study or other data collection plans for Value Stream Map
Sample Size Calculation
Use additional slides if needed
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
4
Operational Definitions





Y – Continuous data (Process start/stop and cycle time boundaries
(such as the unit of measure (ex minutes), the unit (the thing you are
measuring), will you include weekends, holidays, non-business
hours?)
Y – Discrete data (Define Success/Defect or other attribute values
you will measure
X – The subgroups values or X-factor groupings you will use on your
project data collection
Other unique terms that apply to your project that require clear
operational definitions
Use additional slides as needed to complete your operational
definitions
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
5
MSA Conclusions

The measurement systems are acceptable. The data is considered to have no potential for
significant error. Need to be careful to appropriately use the data during the Analyze Phase.
Type of
Measurement Error
Description
Considerations to this Project
Discrimination
(resolution)
The ability of the measurement system to
divide into “data categories”
Work hrs can be measured to <.25 hrs.
Tool usage measure to +- 2 min.
Bias
The difference between an observed
average measurement result and a
reference value
No bias - Work hours and radar start-stop
times consistent through population.
Stability
The change in bias over time
No bias of work hrs & radar usage data.
Repeatability
The extent variability is consistent
Not an issue. Labor and radar usage is
historical and felt to be accurate enough
for insight and analysis.
Reproducibility
Different appraisers produce consistent
results
Remarks in usage data deemed not
reproducible, not used in determining
which radars were used in each op
The difference between parts
n/a to this process.
Variation
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
6
Baseline Basic Statistics

The current process has
a non-normal distribution
with the P-Value < 0.05
but does have a normal
bell-shape.
 Since the mean and
median are the same in
days (29) +/- 0.5 days,
we will not transform
data.
 The range is 35 and the
standard deviation is 2.7
days
Summary for Delivery Time
34
32
30
28
26
24
A nderson-Darling Normality Test
A -Squared
P-V alue <
1.95
0.005
Mean
StDev
V ariance
Skew ness
Kurtosis
N
29.128
2.677
7.169
0.201075
-0.471714
266
Minimum
1st Q uartile
Median
3rd Q uartile
Maximum
24.000
27.000
29.000
31.000
35.000
95% C onfidence Interv al for Mean
28.805
29.451
95% C onfidence Interv al for Median
29.000
29.000
95% C onfidence Interv al for StDev
9 5 % Confidence Intervals
2.468
2.927
Mean
Median
28.8
28.9
29.0
29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
7
Baseline Process Capability



266 data points collected
between 11/1/04 thru
11/30/04
P r o c e s s C a p a b i l i ty o f D e l i v e r y T i m e
LS L
T ar g et
USL
W ith in
O v er all
Mean 29 days, St. Dev.
2.9 days, CP is 1.16
indicating process needs
centering to the LSL of 10
and USL of 30 days. Cpk
is .1 indicating that the
process is exceeding the
USL.
With an overall PPM of
371,895 defects per
million opportunity, the
current process has a
Sigma Quality Level of
1.8 or a 62% yield
P o te n tia l (W ith in ) C a p a b ility
Cp
1.16
C PL
2.22
C PU
0.10
C pk
0.10
C C pk
1.16
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
Pp
1.24
PPL
2.37
PPU
0.11
P pk
0.11
C pm
0.35
P ro ce s s D a ta
12
16
20
O b s e rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
0.00
24
28
32
10
T a rg e t
20
USL
30
S a m p le M e a n
29.1203
S a m p le N
266
S tD e v (W ith in )
2.87033
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)
2.69154
36
E xp . W ith in P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
LS L
0.00
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
0.00
PPM > USL
281954.89
PPM > USL
379619.67
PPM > USL
371895.18
P P M T o ta l
281954.89
P P M T o ta l
379619.67
P P M T o ta l
371895.18
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
8
Sigma Calculator:
Continuous Data
Worksheet For Calculating Process Sigma
Continuous Data Long-Term
1. Label The Normal Curve With The Following:
X value
X+s value
USL & Shade Area To The Right
LSL & Shade Area To The Left
n
n
Example:
n
n
LSL = 8
s
s
USL = 22
Area 2
Xbar
15
S
2
USL
18
LSL
5
Sigma =
3 Sigma
Area 1
10
x
18
x+s
Example:
The average processing time = 15
days (Xbar = 15)
2. Determine Area 1:
Find Z1
USL – x
s
Z1 =
=
(
)
–
(
(
)
=
)
1.5
702009 O ##
Look up Z1 in Normal Table
Norm Dist (Z1) = Normal Table Look Up for Z1
Area 1 = 1 – Look Up
Area 1
=1–
= 1 – Norm Dist (Z1)
(
)
=
0.933193
=
0.066807
=
-5
=
2.87E-07
=
2.87E-07
)=
0.066807
3. Skip this step if there is no LSL
2. Determine Area 2:
LSL – x
s
(
)
–
(
)
Find Z2
Z2 =
Look up Z2 in Normal Table
Norm Dist (Z2) = Normal Table Look Up for Z2
=
(
)
Area 2
Area 2 = Look Up
4. Determine Total Area:
Total Area = Area 1 + Area 2 =
5. Yield = 1 – Total Area
Yield
= 1 – Total Area = 1 –
(
(
= x 100%
6. Process Sigma Comes From
Table Look Up Of Yield
SigmaST = Look Up Value in Sigma Table
)
)
+
(
Enter Values in Yellow
Mean (Average)
Standard Deviation
Delete if no USL (Upper Specification Limit)
Delete if no LSL (Lower Specification Limit)
Sigma Quality Level
=
0.933193
=
93.3193%
=
3.00
The standard deviation was 2 days
(s = 2)
A unit processed longer than 18
days was too late to the customer
(USL = 18)
A unit processed faster than 5 days
was too early to the customer
(LSL = 5)
Sigma Quality Level = 3
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
9
Sigma Calculator:
Discrete Data
General Worksheet For Calculating Process Sigma
1 Number Of Units Processed
2 Total Number Of Defects Made (Include Defects Made And Later Fixed)
3 Number Of Defect Opportunities Per Unit
4 Solve For Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
5 Look Up Process Sigma In Abridged Sigma Conversion Table
Enter Values
Below in Yellow
N=
200
100
D=
35
O=
DPMO = #DIV/0!
Sigma = #DIV/0!
Example:
200 pairs of boots were supplied (N = 200)
35 shoelaces were found broken (D = 35)
Each shoe had 1 lace and there were 2 shoes per pair (O = 2)
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
10
Quick Win Documentation
Template
Process Name: __________________
Process Lead: ___________________
Process Owner: ______________________ Start Date: ______________
Process Area: ________________________ Stop Date: ______________
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Root Cause: _________________________________________________
Obvious Solution: __________________________________________
Low or No Cost:
__________________________________________
 5s
 4-Step Setup Reduction
Low Risk:
________________________________________________
 Inventory Reduction
Implementation Plan: ______________________________________________
 MSA Improvements
Stakeholder (s) Approval: ___________________________________________
 Price reductions
 Reduced DOWNTIME
Benefits:
(NVA steps or work)
 __________________________________________________________
 Pull System
 __________________________________________________________
 Kaizen events
 Other
 __________________________________________________________
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
11
Sources of Waste
Overproduction
Defect
Area 1
Sources of Waste
Area 1
Area 1
Sub area 1
Transportation
Sub area 1
Sub area 1
NVA
Area 1
Area 1
Sub area 1
Processing
Sub area 1
5%
10%

?

?

?

?
Waiting
5%
5%
5%
30%
?
Sub area 1
Inventory
Motion
< Insert your waste
percentage as shown
in pie chart >
Area 1

40%
Defect
Overproduction
Transportation
Waiting
Inventory
Motion
Processing
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
12
Swim Lane
Process Map
Client
Mgr
Notify HR of
employee exit date
Client
HR
Places
information
into HR
database
Oval shapes : Start/Stop of process
Diamonds: Decision points
Rectangles: process steps
Half-Moon: Delay/Queue Time
Note: Steps in blue shapes are non-value added steps
Sends exit
date to IT,
telecom &
facilities
Avg.
Delay
2 days
Form
require
approval?
No
Re-verifies with mgr on
employee’s exit status
Yes
Client
Contact
NT
Admin
Secure
approval(s)
Sends Email
to Admin
Create ticket if
request coming
directly from client
Admin
Avg.
Delay
1 day
Email
Vendor
Delete
account
Avg.
Delay
2 days
Sends
Email to
Admin
Admin closes
ticket and
manager notified
Utilize e-mail vendor’s
web tool to submit delete
request to vendor
Avg.
Delay
1 day
Avg.
Delay
2 days
Generates ticket &
forwards to Admin
Avg.
Delay
4
days
Mark request as
completed on
admin web site
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
13
Value Stream Map
Current State
Service lead time = 384 min
Order Mgmt Supervisor
Weekly Update
SUPPLIERS
CUSTOMER
Customer call time = 24 min
Phone Call
Phone Call
Trig g e r:
C o m p le tio n C rite ria :
Order Mgmt
C yc le Tim e :
Ta k t Tim e :
Manual Update
N u m b e r o f P e op le :
N u m b e r o f A p p ro va ls :
Automate
Monitoring
Screen for Acct Mgr
P/T = 3 min
Ite m s in In b ox :
% R e w o rk :
Lost calls=10%
Volume=1200
# o f Ite ra tion s (c yc le s ):
# o f D a ta b as es :
To p 3 R ew o rk Is s ue s :
1.
2.
Large
Business
6 Customers
Order Mgmt
Small
Business
5 Customers
Simplify/
Mistake Proof
Home
3 Customers
5 min
3 min
Simplify/
Combine
3.
4
Improve
Visibility
Forecast
Improvement
Order Mgmt
Customer
Info
4
Product
Need
Order Mgmt
Order Mgmt
Pricing
Shipping
Info
4
4
P/T = 2 min
P/T = 6 Min
P/T = 6 Min
P/T = 2 Min
Error Rate=2%
Volume=800
Error Rate=0%
Volume=800
Error Rate=2%
Volume=800
Error Rate=1%
Volume=800
2 min
6 min
6 min
DIST
10
20 Orders
240 min
2 min
Pick
Pack & Ship
P/T = 120 Min
Error Rate=1%
Volume=1200
120 min
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
14
Business Impact


State financial impact of future project leverage opportunities
Separate “hard or Type 1” from “soft Type 2 or 3” dollars
Annual Estimate
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
Type 3: ?
Replicated Estimate
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
Type 3: ?
Revenue
Enhancement
•
•
•
Expenses
Reduction
• Type
• Type
1: ?
2: ?
• Type 3: ?
•
•
Loss Reduction
•
Type 1: ?
• Type 2: ?
• Type 3: ?
•
Cost Avoidance
•
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
Type 3: ?
•
•
•
•
•
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
Type 3: ?
Total Savings
•
•
•
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
Type 3: ?
•
•
•
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
Type 3: ?
•
•
•
Type 1: ?
Type 2: ?
• Type 3: ?
Type 1: ?
• Type 2: ?
• Type 3: ?
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
15
Business Impact Details


Type 1: Describe the chain of causality that shows how you determined the Type 1 savings. (tell the story with
cause–effect relationships, on how the proposed change should create the desired financial result (savings) in
your project )
Show the financial calculation savings and assumptions used.




Type 2: Describe the chain of causality that shows how you determined the Type 2 savings. (tell the story with
cause–effect relationships, on how the proposed change should create the desired financial result (savings) in
your project )
Show the financial calculation savings and assumptions used.



Assumption #1 (i.e. Labor rate used, period of time, etc…)
Assumption #2 (i.e. contractor hrs or FTE, source of data, etc…)
Describe the Type 3 Business Impact(s) areas and how these were measured



Assumption #1 (i.e. source of data, clear Operational Definitions?)
Assumption #2 (i.e. hourly rate + incremental benefit cost + travel)
Assumption #1 (i.e. project is driven by the Business strategy?)
Assumption #2 (i.e. Customer service rating, employee moral, etc…)
Other Questions
Stakeholders agree on the project’s impact and how it will be measured in financial terms?
 What steps were taken to ensure the integrity & accuracy of the data?
 Has the project tracking worksheet been updated?

Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
16
Current Status

Key actions
completed
 Issues
 Lessons
learned
 Communication,
team building,
organizational
activities
Lean Six Sigma Project Status and Planning
Deliverables/Tasks Completed last week
Upcoming Deliverables/Tasks - 2 weeks out
Comment
Due
Revised Due
For deliverables due thru:
Actions Scheduled for next 2 Weeks
Deliverable/Action
Who
Due
Revised Due
Commen
Current Issues and Risks
Who
Due
Revised Due
Recomm
Issue/Risk
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
17
Next Steps


Key actions
Planned Lean Six Sigma Tool use


Questions to answer
Barrier/risk mitigation activities
Lean Six Sigma Project Issue Log
No.
Description/Recommendation
Status
Open/Closed/Hold
Last Revised:
Revised Due
Due Date
Resp Comments / Resolution
Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
18
Sign Off

I concur that the Measure phase was successfully completed on
MM/DD/YYYY
 I concur the project is ready to proceed to next phase: Analyze
Enter Name Here
Green Belt/Black Belt
Enter Name Here
Enter Name Here
Sponsor / Process Owner
Financial Representative
Enter Name Here
Deployment Champion
Enter Name Here
Master Black Belt
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
19
Tollgate Reviews
Backup Slides
D
M
A
I
C
Measure
Tollgate Checklist

Has a more detailed Value Stream Map been completed to better understand the
process and problem, and where in the process the root causes might reside?
 Has the team conducted a value-added and cycle time analysis, identifying areas
where time and resources are devoted to tasks not critical to the customer?
 Has the team identified the specific input (x), process (x), and output (y) measures
needing to be collected for both effectiveness and efficiency categories (i.e. Quality,
Speed, and Cost measures)?
 Has the team developed clear, unambiguous operational definitions for each
measurement and tested them with others to ensure clarity/consistent interpretation?
 Has a clear, reasonable choice been made between gathering new data or taking
advantage of existing data already collected by the organization?
 Has an appropriate sample size and sampling frequency been established to ensure
valid representation of the process we’re measuring?
 Has the measurement system been checked for repeatability and reproducibility,
potentially including training of data collectors?
 Has the team developed and tested data collection forms or check sheets which are
easy to use and provide consistent, complete data?
 Has baseline performance and process capability been established? How large is the
gap between current performance and the customer (or project) requirements?
 Has the team been able to identify any complete ‘Quick Wins’?
 Have any Kaizen opportunities been identified to accelerate momentum and results?
 Have key learning(s) to-date required any modification of the Project Charter? If so,
have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and the Key Stakeholders?
 Have any new risks to project success been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation
Plan, and a mitigation strategy put in place?
Key Deliverables:





Detailed Value Stream Map(s)
Data Collection Plan
Measurement Collection Results
Process Capability Results
Current Baseline Process
Performance
 Quick Wins, if applicable
 Identification of Kaizen
Opportunities, if applicable
 Refined Charter, as necessary
 Updated Risk Mitigation Plan
 Deliverables Uploaded to
Central Storage Location or
Deployment Management
System.
Tollgate Review
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
21
Analyze
Tollgate Checklist

Has the team examined the process and identified potential bottlenecks,
disconnects and redundancies that could contribute to the problem statement?
Deliverables:

Has the team analyzed data about the process and its performance to help stratify
the problem, understand reasons for variation in the process, and generate
hypothesis as to the root causes of the current process performance?
 Prioritized List of Validated Root
Causes

Has an evaluation been done to determine whether the problem can be solved
without a fundamental recreation of the process? Has the decision been confirmed
with the Project Sponsor?

Has the team investigated and validated (or devalidated) the root cause hypotheses
generated earlier, to gain confidence that the “vital few” root causes have been
uncovered?

Does the team understand why the problem (the Quality, Cycle Time or Cost
Efficiency issue identified in the Problem Statement) is being seen?

Has the team been able to identify any additional ‘Quick Wins’?

Have learnings to-date required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have
these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and the Key Stakeholders?

Have any new risks to project success been identified, added to the Risk
Mitigation Plan, and a mitigation strategy put in place?
 List of Potential Root causes
 Additional “Quick Wins”, if
applicable
 Refined Charter, as necessary
 Updated Risk Mitigation Plan
 Deliverables Uploaded to Central
Storage Location or Deployment
Management System
Tollgate Review
Has the team identified the key factors (critical X’s) that have the biggest impact on
process performance? Have they validated the root causes?
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
22
22
Abridged Process Sigma Conversion Table…
Long-Term
Yeild
99.99966%
99.9995%
99.9992%
99.9900%
99.8000%
99.9970%
99.9960%
99.9930%
99.9900%
99.9850%
99.9770%
99.9670%
99.9520%
99.9320%
99.9040%
99.8650%
99.8140%
99.7450%
99.6540%
99.5340%
99.3790%
99.181%
98.930%
98.610%
98.220%
97.730%
97.130%
96.410%
95.540%
94.520%
93.320%
91.920%
90.320%
88.50%
86.50%
84.20%
81.60%
78.80%
75.80%
72.60%
69.20%
65.60%
61.80%
58.00%
54.00%
50%
46%
43%
39%
35%
31%
28%
25%
22%
19%
16%
14%
12%
10%
8%
Process
Sigma (ST)
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Defects Per
1,000,000
3.4
5
8
10
20
30
40
70
100
150
230
330
480
680
960
1350
1860
2550
3460
4660
6210
8190
10700
13900
17800
22700
28700
35900
44600
54800
66800
80800
96800
115000
135000
158000
184000
212000
242000
274000
308000
344000
382000
420000
460000
500000
540000
570000
610000
650000
690000
720000
750000
780000
810000
840000
860000
880000
900000
920000
Defects Per
100,000
0.34
0.5
0.8
1
2
3
4
7
10
15
23
33
48
68
96
135
186
255
346
466
621
819
1070
1390
1780
2270
2870
3590
4460
5480
6680
8080
9680
11500
13500
15800
18400
21200
24200
27400
30800
34400
38200
42000
46000
50000
54000
57000
61000
65000
69000
72000
75000
78000
81000
84000
86000
88000
90000
92000
Bonacorsi23
Consulting
Defects Per
10,000
0.034
0.05
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.7
1
1.5
2.3
3.3
4.8
6.8
9.6
13.5
18.6
25.5
34.6
46.6
62.1
81.9
107
139
178
227
287
359
446
548
668
808
968
1150
1350
1580
1840
2120
2420
2740
3080
3440
3820
4200
4600
5000
5400
5700
6100
6500
6900
7200
7500
7800
8100
8400
8600
8800
9000
9200
Defects Per
1,000
0.0034
0.005
0.008
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.07
0.1
0.15
0.23
0.33
0.48
0.68
0.96
1.35
1.86
2.55
3.46
4.66
6.21
8.19
10.7
13.9
17.8
22.7
28.7
35.9
44.6
54.8
66.8
80.8
96.8
115
135
158
184
212
242
274
308
344
382
420
460
500
540
570
610
650
690
720
750
780
810
840
860
880
900
920
Defects Per
100
0.00034
0.0005
0.0008
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.007
0.01
0.015
0.023
0.033
0.048
0.068
0.096
0.135
0.186
0.255
0.346
0.466
0.621
0.819
1.07
1.39
1.78
2.27
2.87
3.59
4.46
5.48
6.68
8.08
9.68
11.5
13.5
15.8
18.4
21.2
24.2
27.4
30.8
34.4
38.2
42
46
50
54
57
61
65
69
72
75
78
81
84
86
88
90
92
Table of the Standard Normal (z) Distribution
z
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
0.00
0.0000
0.0398
0.0793
0.1179
0.1554
0.1915
0.2257
0.2580
0.2881
0.3159
0.3413
0.3643
0.3849
0.4032
0.4192
0.4332
0.4452
0.4554
0.4641
0.4713
0.4772
0.4821
0.4861
0.4893
0.4918
0.4938
0.4953
0.4965
0.4974
0.4981
0.4987
0.4990
0.4993
0.4995
0.4997
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.0040
0.0438
0.0832
0.1217
0.1591
0.1950
0.2291
0.2611
0.2910
0.3186
0.3438
0.3665
0.3869
0.4049
0.4207
0.4345
0.4463
0.4564
0.4649
0.4719
0.4778
0.4826
0.4864
0.4896
0.4920
0.4940
0.4955
0.4966
0.4975
0.4982
0.4987
0.4991
0.4993
0.4995
0.4997
0.0080
0.0478
0.0871
0.1255
0.1628
0.1985
0.2324
0.2642
0.2939
0.3212
0.3461
0.3686
0.3888
0.4066
0.4222
0.4357
0.4474
0.4573
0.4656
0.4726
0.4783
0.4830
0.4868
0.4898
0.4922
0.4941
0.4956
0.4967
0.4976
0.4982
0.4987
0.4991
0.4994
0.4995
0.4997
0.0120
0.0517
0.0910
0.1293
0.1664
0.2019
0.2357
0.2673
0.2969
0.3238
0.3485
0.3708
0.3907
0.4082
0.4236
0.4370
0.4484
0.4582
0.4664
0.4732
0.4788
0.4834
0.4871
0.4901
0.4925
0.4943
0.4957
0.4968
0.4977
0.4983
0.4988
0.4991
0.4994
0.4996
0.4997
0.0160
0.0557
0.0948
0.1331
0.1700
0.2054
0.2389
0.2704
0.2995
0.3264
0.3508
0.3729
0.3925
0.4099
0.4251
0.4382
0.4495
0.4591
0.4671
0.4738
0.4793
0.4838
0.4875
0.4904
0.4927
0.4945
0.4959
0.4969
0.4977
0.4984
0.4988
0.4992
0.4994
0.4996
0.4997
0.0190
0.0596
0.0987
0.1368
0.1736
0.2088
0.2422
0.2734
0.3023
0.3289
0.3513
0.3749
0.3944
0.4115
0.4265
0.4394
0.4505
0.4599
0.4678
0.4744
0.4798
0.4842
0.4878
0.4906
0.4929
0.4946
0.4960
0.4970
0.4978
0.4984
0.4989
0.4992
0.4994
0.4996
0.4997
0.0239
0.0636
0.1026
0.1406
0.1772
0.2123
0.2454
0.2764
0.3051
0.3315
0.3554
0.3770
0.3962
0.4131
0.4279
0.4406
0.4515
0.4608
0.4686
0.4750
0.4803
0.4846
0.4881
0.4909
0.4931
0.4948
0.4961
0.4971
0.4979
0.4985
0.4989
0.4992
0.4994
0.4996
0.4997
0.0279
0.0675
0.1064
0.1443
0.1808
0.2157
0.2486
0.2794
0.3078
0.3340
0.3577
0.3790
0.3980
0.4147
0.4292
0.4418
0.4525
0.4616
0.4693
0.4756
0.4808
0.4850
0.4884
0.4911
0.4932
0.4949
0.4962
0.4972
0.4979
0.4985
0.4989
0.4992
0.4995
0.4996
0.4997
0.0319
0.0714
0.1103
0.1480
0.1844
0.2190
0.2517
0.2823
0.3106
0.3365
0.3529
0.3810
0.3997
0.4162
0.4306
0.4429
0.4535
0.4625
0.4699
0.4761
0.4812
0.4854
0.4887
0.4913
0.4934
0.4951
0.4963
0.4973
0.4980
0.4986
0.4990
0.4993
0.4995
0.4996
0.4997
0.0359
0.0753
0.1141
0.1517
0.1879
0.2224
0.2549
0.2852
0.3133
0.3389
0.3621
0.3830
0.4015
0.4177
0.4319
0.4441
0.4545
0.4633
0.4706
0.4767
0.4817
0.4857
0.4890
0.4916
0.4936
0.4952
0.4964
0.4974
0.4981
0.4986
0.4990
0.4993
0.4995
0.4997
0.4998
Bonacorsi24
Consulting
Lean Six Sigma
DMAIC Improvement Process
Define

Define the opportunity from both the customer
and business perspective
Measure
Understand the baseline process
performance


Analyze
Identify the critical X factors
and root causes impacting
process performance
Improve

Develop solutions
linked to critical x’s
Control

Implement
solutions &
control plan
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
25
Attitude Charting & Key
Constituency Map (Optional)
Key Constituents Map
“Critical mass
must be won-over”
Customer
13%
Operations
25%
HR
25%
Finance
37%
40%
35%
35%
Attitude Charting
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
15%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Innovators
Early Adopters
Late Adopters
Resistors
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
26
Sample Size:
Continuous Data (Optional)
Calculation for Sample Size - Continuous Data

Population Size (N)

Confidence Level (1-alpha)
Power Level (1-beta)
Standard Deviation (s)
Required Precision (+/- delta)
Initial Sample Size
Corrected for Population
Recommended Sample Size
860
0.95000 (Percent expressed as decimal)
0.90000 (Percent expressed as decimal)
10.00000 (Best prior estimate or Range/5)
3.00000 (Margin of Error)
117 (Assumes infinite population)
104 (Correction for finite population)



?
?
?
?
?
104
Calculation for Confidence Intervals - Continuous Data





?
?
?
?
?
Population Size (N)
10,000
Confidence Level (1-alpha)
0.95000 (Percent expressed as decimal)
Observed Sample Mean
25.00000 (Best estimate from data)
Observed Sample Std. Dev.
5.00000 (Best estimate from data)
Actual Sample Size
100
Lower Conf. Int. Limit (Mean)
Upper Conf. Int. Limit (Mean)
23.86764596 (Corrected for finite population)
26.13235404 (Corrected for finite population)
Lower Conf. Int. Limit (S.D.)
Upper Conf. Int. Limit (S.D.)
4.390034232
5.808376227
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
27
Sample Size:
Discrete Data (Optional)
Calculation for Sample Size - Discrete Data (Proportions)

Population Size (N)
1,000
Confidence Level (1-alpha)
0.95000 (Percent expressed as decimal)
Power Level (1-beta)
0.90000 (Percent expressed as decimal)
Expected Proportion (p)
0.50000 (Best prior estimate or 0.50)
Required Precision (+/- delta)
0.03000 (Margin of Error)
Initial Sample Size
Corrected for Population
2919 (Assumes infinite population)
746 (Correction for finite population)
Recommended Sample Size
746





?
?
?
?
?




?
?
?
?
?
Calculation for Confidence Interval - Discrete Data
Population Size (N)
10,000
Confidence Level (1-alpha)
0.95000 (Percent expressed as decimal)
Observed Proportion (p)
0.50000 (Best estimate from data)
Actual Sample Size
Lower Conf. Int. Limit
Upper Conf. Int. Limit
100
0.402488147 (Corrected for finite population)
0.597511853 (Corrected for finite population)
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
28
Measurement Systems
Analysis (MSA) (Optional)
Reported by :
Gage
Tolerance:
name:
Date
Misc:
of study :
Gage R&R

Measurement system is
acceptable with the Total
% Contribution <10%
Response by Part
% Contribution
Percent
% Study Var
10.00
9.75
50
9.50
0
Gage R&R
Repeat
Reprod
1
Part-to-Part
2
3
R Chart by Operator
1
2
3
0.10
5
6
7
8
9
10
Response by Operator
UCL=0.1073
10.00
9.75
_
R=0.0417
0.05
4
Part
9.50
0.00
LCL=0
1
2
Operator
Xbar Chart by Operator
1
10.00
9.75
2
3
Operator * Part Interaction
3
UCL=9.8422
__
X=9.7996
LCL=9.7569
Operator
10.00
Average
Number of Distinct Categories = 7
Components of Variation
100
Sample Range
Study Var %Study Var
Source
StdDev (SD) (6 * SD)
(%SV)
Total Gage R&R .039870 0.23922
19.22
Repeatability
0.023594 0.14156
11.38
Reproducibility 0.032140 0.19284
15.50
Operator
0.018488 0.11093
8.91
Operator*Part 0.026290 0.15774
12.68
Part-To-Part
0.203531 1.22118
98.13
Total Variation
0.207399 1.24439 100.00
Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Response
Sample Mean
%Contribution
Source
VarComp (of VarComp)
Total Gage R&R 0.0015896
3.70
Repeatability
0.0005567
1.29
Reproducibility 0.0010330
2.40
Operator
0.0003418
0.79
Operator*Part 0.0006912
1.61
Part-To-Part
0.0414247
96.30
Total Variation
0.0430143
100.00
9.50
1
2
9.75
3
9.50
1
2
3
4
5 6
Part
7
8
9
10
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
29
Probability Plot
(Optional)
Probability Plot of Anderson-Darling Normality
Normal - 95% CI
99.9
99
Percent
95
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Mean
StDev
N
AD
P-Value
24.74
4.177
100
0.380
0.397
10
5
1
0.1
10
15
20
25
QTY
30
35
40
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
30
Control Chart
(Optional)

I-M R C ha r t of D e liv e r y Time
40
U C L= 3 7 .7 0
I n d iv id u a l V a lu e
The current baseline
delivery time is stable
over time with both the
Moving Range (MR)
(3.22 days) and
Individual Average
(29.13 days)
experiencing common
cause variation
255 data points
collected with zero
subgroups, thus the
I&MR control chart
selected
35
_
X= 2 9 .1 3
30
25
LC L= 2 0 .5 6
20
1
28
55
82
109
136
163
190
217
244
O b s e r v a t io n
U C L= 1 0 .5 3
1 0 .0
M o v in g R a n g e

7 .5
5 .0
__
M R = 3 .2 2
2 .5
0 .0
LC L= 0
1
28
55
82
109
136
163
190
217
244
O b s e r v a t io n
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
31
PDCA
(Optional)

Plan:
 ?
 ?
 Do:
 ?
 ?
 Check:
 ?
 ?
 Act:
 ?
 ?
?
Plan
?
Do
?
Check
?
Act
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
32
5s
(Optional)
Sort
 ?
 ?
Set Order
 ?
 ?
Shine
 ?
 ?
Standardize
 ?
 ?
Sustain
 ?
 ?
5s FORM
IDENTIFICATION
ITEM NAME
TAG NUMBER
TAGGED BY
TAG DATE
CLASSIFICATION
o RAW MATERIAL
o
TOOLS
o
FURNITURE
o WIP
o
SUPPLIES
o
OFFICE MATERIAL
o
o
EQUIPMENT
o
BOOKS/MAGAZINES
FINISHED GOOD
QUANTITY
o
OTHER (EXPLAIN)
CELL / AREA
REASON
o UNNECESSARY
o
LEFTOVER MATERIAL
o DEFECTIVE
o
UNKNOWN
o NON-URGENT
o
OTHER (EXPLAIN)
DISPOSITION REQUIRED
o DISCARD
o
TRANSFER
o
o
LONG-TERM STORAGE
o
OTHER (EXPLAIN)
IN-CELL STORAGE
o REDUCE
ACTION TAKEN
ACTION DESCRIPTION
APPROVED BY
DATE
NEW LOCATION
NEW CELL / AREA
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
33
Benchmark Analysis
(Optional)
CTQ
Process
Capability
(X/Y)
Benchmark
Gap /
Opportunity
Source
Assumptions
Risks
Based on the information above, what is the performance objective*?
• Reduce defects by
%
• Reduce long-term DPMO from
to
.
• Improve short-term Z from
to
.
*If you do not benchmark, performance standards are based on:
• For a process with  3 sigma level, decrease % defects by 10x.
• For a process with > 3 sigma level, decrease % defects by 2x.
• Other….please explain (corporate mandate, compliance/legal, VOC data, etc)
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
34
e
ntim
4.0
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
ic
Pr
e
r
de
Re
rL
la
tio
ea
ns
d
Ti
hi
m
p
Ne
e
M
w
an
Pr
ag
od
em
uc
en
tD
t
ev
el
op
m
Br
en
an
Pr
t
od
d
Im
uc
ag
tO
e
ffe
rin
Pr
g
ox
Br
im
ea
ity
dt
h
to
Cu
st
om
er
Sp
ec
i
CTQ Importance
al
O
%
De
liv
Co
er
y
m
pl
et
e
W
O
rd
ar
er
ra
nt
y
Re
tu
In
rn
ve
s
nt
or
y
Tu
Co
rn
s
rre
ct
In
vo
ic
e
O
Key Buying Factor Analysis
(Optional)
Company
Comp 1
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
Comp 2
Comp 3
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
35
Sample Value Stream
Mapping Symbols (Optional)
Machining
Quotes
C/T = 36 Sec
Set Up Time 7 Min
I
Uptime 86%
Queue/
Inventory
Data Box
Process Box
Flow
(Physical)
Flow
(Information)
Electronic
Information
1
Personnel
Truck Shipment
Sign Off Point
Electronic
Data
System
“Go See”
Monitoring
Physical Pull
FIFO
FIFO Lane
Physical
Transport
Supplier/
Customer
Push Systems
Project
Burst
Supermarket
Replenishment
Kanban
Station
Paper
Kanban
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
36
Spaghetti Diagram
(Optional)
Lines indicate
paper/information
travel:
Supply
- No set path
- Lots of rework
Order
Taker 1
Order
Entry 1
Order
Entry 2
Foyer
Order
Entry 3
Reception
Room
(paper and
office supplies)
Room
(Order
Management)
Order
Taker 2
Order
Taker 3
Printer, Fax
OM Lead
CC &
Val 2
CC &
Val 1
CC &
Val 3
OM Supr Office
Copier
Records
Indicates an in-box
or outbox where
work (forms/
information) waits
to be worked on or
transferred
EAST
To Office Parking Lot
Restrooms
Cafeteria
Vault
(finance)
Engineering Offices
Planning &
Scheduling
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
37
AS-IS Process Mapping
Symbols (Optional)
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
International Standards for Lean Six Sigma
38

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