A New Industrial Revolution What conditions spurred the growth of industry? Factors Leading to the Industrial Boom Westward Expansion Governmental Policies Railroads Factors Leading to the Industrial Boom Westward Expansion Governmental Policies Railroads Provided access to vast deposits of coal, iron, lead, and cooper. Pacific Northwest furnished lumber for building. Congress gave land grants and subsidies to railroads and other businesses. To stop any competition, tariffs or taxes on foreign goods were kept high so people would buy American products. Trains carried people and goods to the West and raw materials East to make finished products. Inventions that helped industry, transportation, and businesses grow *FYI: Patents were government documents that gave an inventor the right to make and sell an invention. Bessemer Process • Allowed people to make stronger steel at a lower cost • Steel replaced iron as the basic building material of industry. Oil Refining Methods • Crude oil refined into lubricants for machines and later gasoline for fuel powered engines and automobiles. Electrical Power Plant • New York City opened the first one in 1882 supplying electricity for lights, street cars, and safer electric engines. Telegraph • Helped businesses and families communicate. Underwater Telegraph • Sped up communications with Europe. Telephone • Invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. • Helped businesses communicate, buy, and sell. Typewriter • Made office work faster and cheaper than handwriting. Automobile • Americans relied less on railroads for transportation. Assembly Line • Introduced by Henry Ford in 1913 to mass produce the automobile cheaper and faster. Gas Powered Airplane • Invented by Wilbur & Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903. • Later used by the military in World War I. The Assembly Line • Jobs A. Painter: body and doors (aka color them) B. Body and door cutter C. Window cutter D. Tire cutter E. Door and window assembly F. Tire assembly The Assembly Line 1. Which made more cars? The assembly line or people working on their own? 2. What were the jobs like on the assembly line? 3. How could working on the assembly line be stressful?