Roman PPT - Al Iman School

Ancient Rome
6th Grade
Early Rome
The city of Rome was established
on the Tiber River in modern-day
Italy in 753 B.C.
The city was founded by an IndoEuropean tribe known as the
Latins, and Latin kings ruled
Rome until about 616 B.C.
At this point, Rome came under
the control of the Etruscans, who
greatly influenced Roman culture
and ruled until approximately 509
EARLY ROME continued…
In 509 B.C., after a group of nobles
overthrew the king of Rome, the Roman
Republic was formed.
According to legend, the city of Rome was
founded around the year 753 B.C. and was
ruled by kings from that time on.
The last king of Rome was cruel and
tyrannical, resulting in a great deal of
After the overthrow, the nobles decided to
create a new government called a
republic. Under this new government,
officials were elected once a year to rule
the city
Life in the Roman Republic
The Roman Republic existed from 509 B.C. to 27 B.C.
The Roman Senate developed during the Republic; senators
were aristocrats who were politically influential in the state.
In times of military emergencies, a single dictator was chosen
for a term of 6 months to have control of the Roman state.
Education in Ancient Rome was the responsibility of the
parents. The schools that did open only taught a few early
grades. Those families who couldn't afford a tutor had a very
limited education.
Life in the Roman Republic
Governmental power in the Roman
Republic was divided among three
the senate,
the legislative assemblies,
and the executive magistrates.
Civic duty was an important part of
life for Roman citizens.
Serving as a judge when asked to hear
a legal case was an example of the
moral obligations of all Roman
citizens during the Republic.
From Roman Republic to
Roman Empire
• Julius Caesar was a strong and admired
leader of the Roman Republic.
• However, he disobeyed the Senate by
bringing his army across the Rubicon
River to attack Pompey, his political
• He gained control of the Roman
government and became dictator for life.
• A group of senators believed that Caesar
was trying to end the republic, so they
killed him in 44 B.C.
After Julius Caesar…
After Julius Caesar's death, his
nephew Octavius inherited all of
Caesar's wealth.
People were angry that Caesar
had been killed, so they supported
Octavius against the Senate.
With his army, Octavius held
control of the government and
became Augustus, the first
Roman emperor.
Life in the Roman Empire
The reign of Augustus began a
time period known as Pax
Romana, which means "the
Roman peace."
From 27 B.C. until about 180
A.D., Rome had no civil wars
and fought few other wars.
Brain POP: Tax Roman
Life in Roman Empire
Hadrian was a Roman
emperor who focused on
defending land that Rome
had already conquered
instead of conquering new
He ordered walls built on the
empire's borders to protect
against barbarians. The most
famous of these is Hadrian's
Wall in Britain.
Life in Roman Empire
The military of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire was
grouped into units called legions.
These legions did most of the heavy fighting when Rome was at war,
and they guarded the empire when it was at peace.
Legions also performed other jobs, such as building roads and forts.
Rome's military and public services were supported by taxes that
people in the empire paid.
Most of these taxes were paid by people who had been conquered by
the Roman Empire.
Life in the Roman Empire cont..
Slaves in the Roman Empire were treated as
property, but they had some legal rights.
Slaves could testify in court, own money or property,
and even sometimes buy their freedom. They had few
other rights, however.
Trade was very important to the economy of
Ancient Rome.
The Romans imported items like glassware, olive oil,
lead, iron, silk, and silver from all over its empire.
Important trade cities included Seville in present-day
Spain, Marseilles in present-day France, and
Alexandria in present-day Egypt.
Life in the Roman Empire
The Roman economy benefited from standard currency, or coins.
This is because more people would trade for the Roman coins than for
Roman goods themselves.
Rome's road system was also beneficial to its economy.
Roman roads connected most parts of the empire, making it easier for
people to travel for trade.
QUIZ 1 will cover slides 1-11
QUIZ 1 will cover slides 1-11
Next weeks quiz will cover slides Decline
of the Roman Empire to Figures in
Roman History
Decline of the Roman Empire
Pax Romana came to an end in
about 180 A.D., and the Roman
Empire began to decline.
The empire was politically
Emperors were often generals
who gained their position by
killing the emperor before them.
Many emperors did not live
longer than a year.
Decline of the Roman Empire
Barbarian attacks and
invasions were major
factors leading to the
fall of the Roman
These groups would
also attack the Empire,
eventually causing the
Empire to shrink.
Decline of the Roman Empire
These barbarian attacks
stopped the Romans from
being able to protect their
trade routes.
The quality of roads and
harbors in the Roman Empire
declined, which also decreased
trade, and made
communications between
Rome and the cities and
legions on the border less
Decline of the Roman Empire
As trade with other nations
decreased, Romans wanted new
jobs in the city.
However, most of the jobs were
done by slaves, so a lot of Roman
citizens were unemployed.
Without jobs, Roman citizens
could not afford to pay their taxes
and the Empire did not have
enough money to support all the
land in the large empire.
Decline of Roman Empire
The Roman Empire divided into two
Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire.
The two empires grew weaker and were
less able to protect against invasions.
The city of Rome itself was sacked
(captured and looted) two different
A Gothic barbarian leader removed the
Roman emperor and made himself king.
This is considered to be the time that the
Western Roman Empire fell.
Brain pop: decline of Roman Empire
The Roman Republic and Empire began in present-day Rome and, at its
height, extended from Great Britain into Eastern Asia.
Roman culture shared many aspects with ancient Greek culture. Religion,
for example, was similar in both societies.
In mythology, the Romans took many of the Greek gods and created new
names for them.
For example, the leader of the gods in Roman mythology is Jupiter, but stories
about him and his rule in the skies are very similar, if not the same as, myths
about Zeus in Greek mythology.
Figures in Roman History
Romulus and Remus are the traditional
founders of Rome.
They appear in Roman mythology as
twin sons fathered by Mars, the god of
According to legend, Romulus killed
Remus in a dispute over which brother
had support of the local gods to rule the
city and give it his name.
Romulus served as the first King of
Rome, created the Roman Legions and
Roman Senate, and added citizens to his
city by abducting women of the
neighboring Sabine tribes.
Figures in Roman History
Aeneas, another figure in Roman
mythology, was the son of the
goddess Aphrodite and was a
Trojan hero.
His journey from Troy is told in
Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid.
He is one of the few survivors of
Troy's fall to the Greeks.
His journey leads him to the
founding of the city that would
one day become Rome.
Figures in Roman History
Julius Caesar was a Roman
military and political leader who
played an important part in the
transformation of the Roman
Republic to the Roman Empire.
He extended the Roman world to
the Atlantic Ocean through
conquests and was proclaimed
dictator for life.
He was murdered by members of
the Senate who wanted to restore
the republic.
Figures in Roman History
Cicero was an orator and statesman of
Rome and is considered the greatest Latin
orator (public speaker, especially one who
is eloquent or skilled).
FYI: Many of his books and speeches have
survived and are famous today.
He was exiled from Rome for putting
Roman citizens to death without a trial
and returned over a year later.
He worked to earn favor with Julius
Caesar during Caesar's rise to power.
Figures in Roman History
Caesar Augustus (also known
as Octavius) became emperor
after the death of Julius Caesar
and kept control over all
politics and the military.
During his long and peaceful
reign, he had many
accomplishments, including
expanding the empire and
extending trade routes to India
and China.
Figures in Roman History
Hadrian was a Roman emperor who
focused on defending land that Rome had
already conquered instead of conquering
new lands.
He ordered walls built on the empire's
borders to protect against barbarians.
The most famous of these is Hadrian's
Wall in Britain.
He worked to fight rebellions within the
empire, including a Jewish revolt that
ended with the destruction of the Second
He supported architecture and other
artwork in the empire.
FYI: Hadrian traveled frequently and
Figures in Roman History
Hannibal was one of Rome's most famous
He led an invasion of Italy during the
Second Punic War fought between Rome
and Carthage.
Hannibal's army included war elephants
from Africa.
The army traveled through Spain and
crossed the Alps during their invasion of
He won several victories against the
Romans, but he was unable to capture the
major Roman cities.
Hannibal was defeated when the Romans
began their own invasion of Carthage,
forcing him to retreat.
The ancient Romans had many
accomplishments in the fields of art,
architecture, technology, science, law,
and literature. Many elements of
Roman society continue to influence
the modern world.

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