Ancient Rome 6th Grade Early Rome The city of Rome was established on the Tiber River in modern-day Italy in 753 B.C. The city was founded by an IndoEuropean tribe known as the Latins, and Latin kings ruled Rome until about 616 B.C. At this point, Rome came under the control of the Etruscans, who greatly influenced Roman culture and ruled until approximately 509 B.C. EARLY ROME continued… In 509 B.C., after a group of nobles overthrew the king of Rome, the Roman Republic was formed. According to legend, the city of Rome was founded around the year 753 B.C. and was ruled by kings from that time on. The last king of Rome was cruel and tyrannical, resulting in a great deal of unrest. After the overthrow, the nobles decided to create a new government called a republic. Under this new government, officials were elected once a year to rule the city Life in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic existed from 509 B.C. to 27 B.C. The Roman Senate developed during the Republic; senators were aristocrats who were politically influential in the state. In times of military emergencies, a single dictator was chosen for a term of 6 months to have control of the Roman state. Education in Ancient Rome was the responsibility of the parents. The schools that did open only taught a few early grades. Those families who couldn't afford a tutor had a very limited education. Life in the Roman Republic Governmental power in the Roman Republic was divided among three branches: the senate, the legislative assemblies, and the executive magistrates. Civic duty was an important part of life for Roman citizens. Serving as a judge when asked to hear a legal case was an example of the moral obligations of all Roman citizens during the Republic. From Roman Republic to Roman Empire • Julius Caesar was a strong and admired leader of the Roman Republic. • However, he disobeyed the Senate by bringing his army across the Rubicon River to attack Pompey, his political enemy. • He gained control of the Roman government and became dictator for life. • A group of senators believed that Caesar was trying to end the republic, so they killed him in 44 B.C. After Julius Caesar… After Julius Caesar's death, his nephew Octavius inherited all of Caesar's wealth. People were angry that Caesar had been killed, so they supported Octavius against the Senate. With his army, Octavius held control of the government and became Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Life in the Roman Empire The reign of Augustus began a time period known as Pax Romana, which means "the Roman peace." From 27 B.C. until about 180 A.D., Rome had no civil wars and fought few other wars. Brain POP: Tax Roman Life in Roman Empire Hadrian was a Roman emperor who focused on defending land that Rome had already conquered instead of conquering new lands. He ordered walls built on the empire's borders to protect against barbarians. The most famous of these is Hadrian's Wall in Britain. Life in Roman Empire The military of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire was grouped into units called legions. These legions did most of the heavy fighting when Rome was at war, and they guarded the empire when it was at peace. Legions also performed other jobs, such as building roads and forts. Rome's military and public services were supported by taxes that people in the empire paid. Most of these taxes were paid by people who had been conquered by the Roman Empire. Life in the Roman Empire cont.. Slaves in the Roman Empire were treated as property, but they had some legal rights. Slaves could testify in court, own money or property, and even sometimes buy their freedom. They had few other rights, however. Trade was very important to the economy of Ancient Rome. The Romans imported items like glassware, olive oil, lead, iron, silk, and silver from all over its empire. Important trade cities included Seville in present-day Spain, Marseilles in present-day France, and Alexandria in present-day Egypt. Life in the Roman Empire cont… The Roman economy benefited from standard currency, or coins. This is because more people would trade for the Roman coins than for Roman goods themselves. Rome's road system was also beneficial to its economy. Roman roads connected most parts of the empire, making it easier for people to travel for trade. QUIZ 1 will cover slides 1-11 STOP QUIZ 1 will cover slides 1-11 Next weeks quiz will cover slides Decline of the Roman Empire to Figures in Roman History Decline of the Roman Empire Pax Romana came to an end in about 180 A.D., and the Roman Empire began to decline. The empire was politically unstable. Emperors were often generals who gained their position by killing the emperor before them. Many emperors did not live longer than a year. Decline of the Roman Empire Barbarian attacks and invasions were major factors leading to the fall of the Roman Empire. These groups would also attack the Empire, eventually causing the Empire to shrink. Decline of the Roman Empire These barbarian attacks stopped the Romans from being able to protect their trade routes. The quality of roads and harbors in the Roman Empire declined, which also decreased trade, and made communications between Rome and the cities and legions on the border less reliable. MAP of DECLINE OF ROME… Decline of the Roman Empire continue… As trade with other nations decreased, Romans wanted new jobs in the city. However, most of the jobs were done by slaves, so a lot of Roman citizens were unemployed. Without jobs, Roman citizens could not afford to pay their taxes and the Empire did not have enough money to support all the land in the large empire. Decline of Roman Empire continue… The Roman Empire divided into two parts: Western Roman Empire Eastern Roman Empire. The two empires grew weaker and were less able to protect against invasions. The city of Rome itself was sacked (captured and looted) two different times. A Gothic barbarian leader removed the Roman emperor and made himself king. This is considered to be the time that the Western Roman Empire fell. Brain pop: decline of Roman Empire ROMAN REPUBLIC and EMPIRE… The Roman Republic and Empire began in present-day Rome and, at its height, extended from Great Britain into Eastern Asia. Roman culture shared many aspects with ancient Greek culture. Religion, for example, was similar in both societies. In mythology, the Romans took many of the Greek gods and created new names for them. For example, the leader of the gods in Roman mythology is Jupiter, but stories about him and his rule in the skies are very similar, if not the same as, myths about Zeus in Greek mythology. Figures in Roman History Romulus and Remus are the traditional founders of Rome. They appear in Roman mythology as twin sons fathered by Mars, the god of war. According to legend, Romulus killed Remus in a dispute over which brother had support of the local gods to rule the city and give it his name. Romulus served as the first King of Rome, created the Roman Legions and Roman Senate, and added citizens to his city by abducting women of the neighboring Sabine tribes. Figures in Roman History Aeneas, another figure in Roman mythology, was the son of the goddess Aphrodite and was a Trojan hero. His journey from Troy is told in Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid. He is one of the few survivors of Troy's fall to the Greeks. His journey leads him to the founding of the city that would one day become Rome. Figures in Roman History Julius Caesar was a Roman military and political leader who played an important part in the transformation of the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. He extended the Roman world to the Atlantic Ocean through conquests and was proclaimed dictator for life. He was murdered by members of the Senate who wanted to restore the republic. Figures in Roman History Cicero was an orator and statesman of Rome and is considered the greatest Latin orator (public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled). FYI: Many of his books and speeches have survived and are famous today. He was exiled from Rome for putting Roman citizens to death without a trial and returned over a year later. He worked to earn favor with Julius Caesar during Caesar's rise to power. Figures in Roman History Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavius) became emperor after the death of Julius Caesar and kept control over all politics and the military. During his long and peaceful reign, he had many accomplishments, including expanding the empire and extending trade routes to India and China. Figures in Roman History Hadrian was a Roman emperor who focused on defending land that Rome had already conquered instead of conquering new lands. He ordered walls built on the empire's borders to protect against barbarians. The most famous of these is Hadrian's Wall in Britain. He worked to fight rebellions within the empire, including a Jewish revolt that ended with the destruction of the Second Temple. He supported architecture and other artwork in the empire. FYI: Hadrian traveled frequently and Figures in Roman History Hannibal was one of Rome's most famous enemies. He led an invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War fought between Rome and Carthage. Hannibal's army included war elephants from Africa. The army traveled through Spain and crossed the Alps during their invasion of Italy. He won several victories against the Romans, but he was unable to capture the major Roman cities. Hannibal was defeated when the Romans began their own invasion of Carthage, forcing him to retreat. ACCOMPLISHMENTS… The ancient Romans had many accomplishments in the fields of art, architecture, technology, science, law, and literature. Many elements of Roman society continue to influence the modern world.