Short Holding Presentation

Report
Advanced Holding Patterns
Christian Pezalla
ATP, CFII
www.3pointaviation.com
What is holding a pattern?
• Racetrack Shaped Pattern
• Used to:
• Hold aircraft during delays
• Hold aircraft during inclement weather
• Provide course reversal (procedure turn)
• Provide default actions at clearance limit
• Climb aircraft to required altitude
• Handle aircraft in non-radar environment
Hold Segments
Inbound Leg
Outbound Turn
Outbound Leg
Inbound Turn
No-Wind Pattern (1 Min Legs)
1 Minute Inbound Leg
• 1 Minute Outbound Turn
• 180 Degrees of heading
Change
1 Minute Outbound Leg
• 1 Minute Inbound Turn
• 180 Degrees of heading
Change
Lateral Wind Correction
 Wind affects the path of the aircraft at all times, even
while turning turns
 A 1 minute pattern with no adjustment for wind requires
4 minutes to complete. 4 Minutes equals 1/15 of an hour
 A 15kt wind will push the aircraft off course by an entire
mile in the time required to complete one circuit
 A 30kt wind will push the aircraft 2 miles off course unless
correction are made for wind
Lateral Wind Correction (Wrong)
Example 1
• No outbound wind
correction
• Entire inbound leg
used to correct
• Aircraft is pushed
during both turns and
outbound leg
Lateral Wind Correction (Wrong)
Example 1
Example 2
• No outbound wind
correction
• Outbound wind
correction insufficient
• Entire inbound leg
used to correct
• Inbound leg correcting
for wind but not
returning to inbound
course
• Aircraft is pushed
during both turns and
outbound leg
• Aircraft is pushed
during both turns
Lateral Wind Correction (Correct)
Example 3
Same as Example 3
• Outbound wind
correction
(Triple Method)
• Outbound wind
correction towards
wind
• Inbound leg properly
aligned after turn
• Inbound leg properly
aligned after turn
• Aircraft is pushed
during both turns
• Aircraft is pushed
during both turns
Timing Points
Complete Timing at the
Fix and Turn Outbound
Start Inbound Timing
1. Crossing the
Inbound Course
2. Rolling Wings Level
-Whichever occurs first
Start Outbound Timing
1. Abeam the
Holding Fix
2. Wings Level
(If Abeam Point
Cannot be
Determined)
Complete Timing and
Turn Inbound
Timing for Wind
Outbound Timing Too Long
Correct Timing
Correct Timing
Outbound Timing
(b) Outbound leg timing begins
over/abeam the fix, whichever
occurs later. If the abeam position
cannot be determined, start
timing when turn to outbound is
completed.
(FAA AIM, February 2013)
Abeam Point
What to Write Down
• All of the Instructions
• Write down and readback all parts
of the ATC clearance
• If too busy for readback, say
“standby for readback”
• Inbound Course
• Determine and write down the
inbound course
• May be the same as the number in
the clearance or reverse
• Outbound Heading
• Determine and write down the nowind outbound heading
• Will always be the opposite of the
inbound course
• Time or Distances
• Determine distances or timing to
be used and write down
What to Write Down
• All of the Instructions
• Write down and readback all parts
of the ATC clearance
• If too busy for readback, say
“standby for readback”
• Inbound Course
• Determine and write down the
inbound course
• May be the same as the number in
the clearance or reverse
• Outbound Heading
• Determine and write down the nowind outbound heading
• Will always be the opposite of the
inbound course
• Time or Distances
• Determine distances or timing to
be used and write down
Navigation Sources
• VOR
•
•
•
•
VOR Only
VOR/VOR
VOR/DME
VOR Area Nav (RNAV)
• NDB
• NDB Only
• NDB/VOR
• NDB/DME
• GPS
• OBS Mode
• Database Mode
• ILS
•
•
•
•
•
ILS/Marker Beacon
ILS/LOM
ILS/DME
ILS/GS
ILS/VOR
VOR Holding (Always Timed)
Cessna 1234, Hold south of the Ranger VOR on
the 180 radial, make right hand turns, and expect
further clearance 1400Z
Cessna 1234, Hold northeast of the Volunteer
VOR on the 030 radial, make left hand turns,
and expect further clearance 1200Z
ATC Instructions:





Direction
Holding Fix
Inbound Course
Direction of Turns
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Write Down:




All of the Instructions
Inbound Course
Outbound Heading
Time or Distances
VOR/DME Holding (with Timing)
ATC Instructions:





Direction
Holding Fix
Inbound Course
Direction of Turns
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Write Down:




All of the Instructions
Inbound Course
Outbound Heading
Time or Distances
GPS Holding
• Satellite Based
• Ground Speed read accurately at all positions
• Distance is measured from the selected fix (not the NAVAID)
• Three Types of GPS Holds
• GPS OBS Holding
• GPS Database holding
• GPS FMS Holding
GPS OBS Holding
• Functions like a VOR Hold
• Fix, NAVAID, intersection or airport
• Works with user defined waypoints
• Provides distance to fix information
• Inbound course must be manually set
• GPS will not provide entry guidance
User Defined
Waypoint
Simplifying the Hold with GPS OBS (Mode)
• Replacing Ground Based Navigation
•
•
•
•
Allowed when not part of an approach
More stable and consistent than ground based systems
Constant CDI Scale
Normally requires OBD mode
GPS Database Holding
• GPS driven CDI
• Provides distance to fix
information
• Inbound course is automatically
set
• GPS may provide entry guidance
Holding (Protected) Airspace
• Outlined in FAA Order 7130.3A
• Determined by ATC
• Not Readily Available to Pilots
• Not Pilots’ Responsibility
• Depends on
• Altitude
• Speed
• Navigation Aid
Diagram Courtesy of the FAA
Flight on the Non-Holding Side is Normal
Diagram from FAA Order 7130.3A
Flying the Parallel Entry
Wrong (Attempting to Track Radial)
Correct (Flying Outbound Heading)
Diagrams from FAA Order 7130.3A
Dealing with High Winds
• Consider the wind before entering the hold
• Be aggressive with wind correction angles
• Extend length of the hold legs
• Increasing your speed in the hold
• Do not make the outbound leg too short
• Request a different hold
Advanced Holding Concepts
• Knowing the Wind on Entry
•
•
•
•
Winds Aloft Report (FD)
Pilot Reports (PIREPs)
Tracking prior to the hold
On board systems (GPS based)
• GPS wind vector
• GPS track indicator
Disorientation
• When does it happen?
• Before and during entry
• How does it happen?
• Failure to understand hold orientation
• How do we prevent disorientation?
• Clarify ATC instructions and write down headings
• What to do when it happens?
• Fly 20 sec in any direction then turn back to fix and redo entry
• Or fly outbound for 30 sec and reverse course
Key Points
• Always refer to the FAR/AIM for correct information
• Write down and readback air traffic control instructions
• Always confirm the navigation source in use
• Use large correction angles during high wind
How to Best Utilize Technology
• Learn the functions and limits of your equipment
• Monitor navigation systems to ensure proper function and cross
check against paper charts (or ipad)
• Use the most appropriate techniques, not necessarily the most
automated method
Direct Entry Procedure
• Fly directly to the fix and turn to
the outbound heading
• Apply wind correction to first
outbound if possible
• Start timing at abeam point (or
wings level if abeam can not be
determined)
• Consider disregarding timing
from first circuit
Teardrop Entry Procedure
• After crossing fix turn to a
heading 30 degrees towards the
outbound leg
(15 degrees for distance legs)
• LARS (Left Add, Right Subtract)
• Start timing over the fix
• Turn over the fix could be either
direction
• Turn inbound will be same as
direction of the hold
Parallel Entry Procedure
• Cross the fix and turn to the
outbound heading
• Do not track the radial, bearing
or course
• Start timing while crossing the
fix
• Fly specified time or distance
then turn opposite the direction
of the hold
ATC Instructions
Holding instructions will always include:





The direction of the hold from the fix (orientation)
The holding fix to be used (May or may not be a NAVAID)
The course that defines in the inbound leg (radial, bearing or track to)
The direction of the turns
Expect Further Clearance time (EFC)
Holding instructions are “instructions” not a clearance
VOR/DME Holding (with Distance Legs)
Cessna 1234, Hold south of
the Orlando VOR 10 mile
DME on the 360 radial, make
right hand turns, with 4 mile
legs and expect further
clearance 2100Z
ATC Instructions:






Direction
Holding Fix
Inbound Course
Direction of Turns
*Leg Length*
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Write Down:




All of the Instructions
Inbound Course
Outbound Heading
Time or Distances
Advanced Cockpits
• Electronic Wind Information
•
•
•
•
Compares actual ground path against projected path
Inaccurate while turning
Inaccurate without correct airspeed, pressure, temp, heading and GPS data
Bad data when changing aircraft direction causes large changes in wind
• Building a User Defined GNSS Waypoint
• May be used for points not defined in the GPS database
• Not all fixes are included in GPS databases
• Out of date databases may be missing critical fixes
• Useful for training
G1000 Holding with MFD (Moving Map)
• MFD only displays a hold if it is in the database
• Holds in the database may not be changed or reprogrammed
• Size determined by groundspeed
• Invalid airspeed data does not affect hold size
• Shaped determined by groundspeed and wind
• Assumes no wind when wind data is not available
• Course deviation indicator does not track the MFD hold image
• CDI functions are the same in database and OBS mode
• Flight director follows MFD holding pattern
• Only works with database holds, not OBS
What is the Distance to KROME?
Distance to KROME
•
•
•
•
•
•
I-MFA
DHP
KROME
COPRA
MAP
RW
15.1NM
10.6NM
00.0NM
04.0NM
12.0NM
13.2NM
Examples
• NBD App with GPS Overlay
• One Minute Hold on GPS App
• MADKS Fix
• Crossing Altitude
Examples
Holding Pattern
Lateral Guidance: LOM AG
Fix Identification:
• LOM (NDB)
• Marker Beacons
• DME from IRQ
Pencil Method
• Write down ATC instructions
• Point aircraft towards fix
• Determine outbound heading
• Find that heading on gyro
• Horizontal line is always offset
20 degrees with high set in the
direction of turns
• Second line is always vertical
Parallel/Teardrop Split

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