資工系網媒所NEWS實驗室Chapter 4: Threads

Report
Chapter 4: Threads
國立台灣大學
資訊工程學系
Objectives
To introduce the notion of a thread — a
fundamental unit of CPU utilization that forms
the basis of multithreaded computer systems
To discuss the APIs for the Pthreads, Win32,
and Java thread libraries
To explore several strategies that provide
implicit threading
To examine issues related to multithreaded
programming
To cover operating system support for threads
in Windows and Linux
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Chapter 4: Threads
Overview
Multicore Programming
Multithreading Models
Thread Libraries
Implicit Threading
Threading Issues
Operating System Examples
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Single and Multithreaded Processes
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Benefits
Responsiveness
Resource Sharing
Economy
Scalability
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Multicore Programming
Multicore systems putting pressure on
programmers, challenges include
Dividing activities
Balance
Data splitting
Data dependency
Testing and debugging
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Multithreaded Server Architecture
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Concurrent Execution
on a Single-core System
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Parallel Execution on a Multicore System
AMDAHL’s Law
1
 ⦤
1−
+ 
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Programming Challenges
Identifying tasks
Balance
Data splitting
Data dependency
Testing and debugging
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Types of Parallelism
Data parallelism
Task parallelism
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User Threads
Thread management done by user-level
threads library
Three primary thread libraries:
POSIX Pthreads
Win32 threads
Java threads
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Kernel Threads
Supported by the Kernel
Examples
Windows XP/2000
Solaris
Linux
Tru64 UNIX
Mac OS X
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Multithreading Models
Many-to-One
One-to-One
Many-to-Many
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Many-to-One
Many user-level threads mapped to single
kernel thread
Examples:
Solaris Green Threads
GNU Portable Threads
Linux, …
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Many-to-One Model
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One-to-One
Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread
Examples
Windows NT/XP/2000
Linux
Solaris 9 and later
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One-to-one Model
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Many-to-Many Model
Allows many user level threads to be
mapped to many kernel threads
Allows the operating system to create a
sufficient number of kernel threads
Solaris prior to version 9
Windows NT/2000 with the ThreadFiber
package
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Many-to-Many Model
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Two-level Model
Similar to M:M, except that it allows a user
thread to be bound to kernel thread
Examples
IRIX
HP-UX
Tru64 UNIX
Solaris 8 and earlier
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Two-level Model
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Thread Libraries
Thread library provides programmer with
API for creating and managing threads
Two primary ways of implementing
Library entirely in user space
Kernel-level library supported by the OS
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Pthreads
May be provided either as user-level or kernel-level
A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread
creation and synchronization
API specifies behavior of the thread library,
implementation is up to development of the library
Common in UNIX operating systems (Solaris, Linux,
Mac OS X)
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Java Threads
Java threads are managed by the JVM
Typically implemented using the threads
model provided by underlying OS
Java threads may be created by:
Extending Thread class
Implementing the Runnable interface
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Java Thread States
zombie
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Implicit Threading
Transfer the creation and management
of threading from developer to compilers
and run-time library
Thread Pools
OpenMP
#pragma omp parallel {…}
Grand Central Dispatch (GCD), Apple
^{…}
Threading Building Blocks (TBB), Intel
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Thread Pools
Create a number of threads in a pool where
they await work
Advantages:
Usually slightly faster to service a request with an
existing thread than create a new thread
Allows the number of threads in the application(s) to
be bound to the size of the pool
Easier to use different strategies for running the task
Delay or periodically
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Threading Issues
Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls
Signal handling
Thread cancellation of target thread
Asynchronous or deferred
Thread-local storage
Scheduler activations
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Semantics of fork() and exec()
Does fork() duplicate only the calling
thread or all threads?
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Signal Handling
Signals are used in UNIX systems to notify a process
that a particular event has occurred
A signal handler is used to process signals
1.
2.
3.
Signal is generated by particular event
Signal is delivered to a process
Signal is handled
Options:
Deliver the signal to the thread to which the signal applies
Deliver the signal to every thread in the process
Deliver the signal to certain threads in the process
Assign a specific threa to receive all signals for the process
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Thread Cancellation
Terminating a thread before it has finished
Two general approaches:
Asynchronous cancellation terminates the target
thread immediately
Deferred cancellation allows the target thread to
periodically check if it should be cancelled
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Thread–Local Storage
Allows each thread to have its own copy of data
Useful when you do not have control over the
thread creation process (i.e., when using a
thread pool, but need own transaction ID).
A static data vs. a local variable
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Scheduler Activations
Both M:M and Two-level models require
communication to maintain the appropriate
number of kernel threads allocated to the
application
light weight processor (LWP) or virtual processor
Scheduler activations provide upcalls - a
communication mechanism from the kernel to
the thread library
This communication allows an application to
maintain the correct number kernel threads
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Operating System Examples
Windows XP Threads
M:M
Linux Thread
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Windows XP Threads
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Windows XP Threads
Implements the one-to-one mapping, kernel-level
Each thread contains
A thread id
Register set
Separate user and kernel stacks
Private data storage area
The register set, stacks, and private storage area
are known as the context of the threads
The primary data structures of a thread include:
ETHREAD (executive thread block)
KTHREAD (kernel thread block)
TEB (thread environment block)
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Linux Threads
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Linux Threads
Linux refers to them as tasks rather than threads
Thread creation is done through clone() system call
clone() allows a child task to share the address space of
the parent task (process)
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End of Chapter 4
國立台灣大學
資訊工程學系

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