8-2.5 Battles of the American Revolution

Report
SC & The Battles of The
Revolutionary War
8-2.5 Summarize the role of South Carolinians in the course
of the American Revolution, including the use of partisan
warfare and the battles of Charleston, Camden, Cowpens,
Kings Mountain and Eutaw Springs.
The Fighting Begins
1. Fighting began in 1775 in the
Northern colonies.
2. Americans won a decisive
victory at Saratoga, NY
a)
Turning point in war – Americans
welcome alliance with France.
battle of Saratoga – (9:32)
Turning Point – Saratoga, NY
Turning Point – Saratoga, NY
The fighting continues…
1.
2.
Key conflicts of the American Revolution took
place in SC and affected the state and outcome of
the War.
Fighting began in 1775 in the Northern colonies, but
after the British loss at Saratoga, they decided to
try a new strategy…take the South.
First Battle of Charleston
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Summer of 1776
British Gen. Clinton sent 5000 troops from
Boston
Patriot leaders got word the British planned
to capture Charles Town.
They decided to build a fort on Sullivan’s
Island – Colonel William Moultrie began
building a fort of palmetto logs.
British fired and their cannon balls bounced
safely off the soft wood.
Americans severely damaged the British
ships and renamed the fort, Fort Moultrie.
Flag of SC…
Sergeant Jasper lifting the
flag after it had fallen in
the battle----
Colonel Moultrie designed the
flag that hung over Sullivan’s
Island. It had a silver crescent in
the corner. Today it also has a
silver palmetto tree in honor of
the victory. In 1861 it became the
official state flag.
First Battle of Charleston
Siege of Charleston
1.
2.
3.
4.
March 29, 1780
Major General Benjamin Lincoln
severe blow to the colonies
the greatest loss of manpower and
equipment of the war for the
Americans
5. gave the British nearly complete
control of the Southern colonies
British Mistreat Colonists
British Response to SC
1.
British hoped they would gain control of state through large
numbers of state Loyalists and neutral colonists to help win the
war
2. But, British changed their parole terms and forced paroled
Patriots to take up arms against their countrymen
a)
At the same time, the British, along with American Tories, treated SC
harshly: they burned churches, looted & confiscated homes, harassed and
exiled citizens
b)
This behavior turned South Carolinians against the British. Partisan
bands were formed as a result
PARTISAN TROOPS
SUMTER
MARION
PICKENS
Partisan Troops
1.
Patriot partisans led by
Francis Marion, Thomas
Sumter, Andrew Pickens, &
William Harden
a)
fighting both the British
regular troops and
Loyalists forces using hit
& run tactics all over the
state (Guerilla Warfare)
Battle of Camden
1. August 16, 1780
2. a major defeat for regular
Continental Army; signified
almost all of SC was
controlled by British
3. SC militia was not prepared
and turned and fled in the face
of regular British forces
Battle of Camden
1.
2.
Horatio Gates’ commander of the
southern arm of the Continental
Army was transferred to Nathaniel
Greene
Greene understood need to
coordinate with the work of the
state’s partisans in order to fight a
destructive war of attrition [termed
today a “mobile war”] that would
unbalance and eventually destroy
the British war effort.
British Troops after the Battle of Camden
Battle of King’s Mountain
Battle of Kings Mountain
The Scotch-Irish and the Battle of Kings
Mountain – YouTube (8:16)
Battle of Kings Mountain
1.
After British victory at Camden, Cornwallis sent Major Patrick Ferguson,
Commander of Loyalists, into SC Up-country to rid area of Patriots.
2.
Ferguson was ambushed by North & South Carolina mountain-men at
Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780.
3.
Using guerrilla warfare, Patriots killed Ferguson along with 1,100 of his
men.
4.
British tried to surrender, but were offered no quarter by Patriots in
retaliation of harsh treatment British had bestowed upon Patriots
throughout SC
5.
Kings Mountain is considered turning point of war in the south. From this
point on, British began retreating from interior of SC.
Battle of King’s Mountain –
The Turning Point in the War
Battle of Cowpens
Battle of Cowpens – YouTube (2:18)
Battle of Cowpens
1.
The Battle of Cowpens (Jan. 17, 1781) showed cooperation
of regular Continental Army and partisan forces.
2. Partisans had a reputation of turning tail and running (think
Camden Cowards). Americans counted on this rep for battle plan.
3.
partisans, led by Andrew Pickens, led attack and then fled,
tricking British into thinking Americans were retreating. Instead,
partisans lured British forces into guns of regular American
army.
4. British were defeated-retreated toward Virginia.
Colonel Isaac Hayne
1.
Partisan parolee Colonel Isaac Hayne
was captured near Charleston in July
1781
2.
British used his punishment as an
example to help stem Patriot advance
3.
They hanged him as a traitor of British
crown after only a brief trial
4.
Nathaniel Greene issued a proclamation
stating he would retaliate against British
forces.
Battle of Eutaw Springs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
September, 1781
Not the last of 137 battles fought in SC, nor a technical victory
the irreplaceable British troop losses made it strategically the final major
battle in SC
While current sources often disagree in their final assessment of who won the
battle itself, there is no question about its evaluation by the Patriot cause.
American contemporaries viewed the Battle of Eutaw Springs in the very least
as a Pyrrhic victory for British because it marked the clearance of the British
from the battleground state and region (with the exception of a few coastal
enclaves that were finally evacuated after Yorktown and during the peace
proceedings in 1782) and thus the demise of the British southern campaign.
Victory at Yorktown
1.
2.
3.
After the British defeat at Cowpens, General Cornwallis was
forced to leave SC and retreat to Yorktown, VA hoping to resupply his troops and later gain a better hold on the south.
At this same time, Washington, with help from the French
(Reminder: The French sided with ANYONE against the
British), cut off Yorktown peninsula from the main land.
French navy cut off peninsula by sea.
4. Cornwallis was held under siege for weeks. No supplies reached
him because of the French naval blockade.
5. In early October, Patriots prepared for an attack on Cornwallis –
his troops were weak from starvation.
6. Fearing defeat, Cornwallis surrendered October19, 1781, ending
the Revolutionary War.
Victory at Yorktown
Liberty`s Kids #36
Yorktown –
YouTube (21:37)
Treaty of Paris
1. In June 1781, reps from the Continental Congress began peace
negotiations with the British.
2. American delegates were John Jay, John Adams, Henry
Laurens, & Benjamin Franklin.
3. The Treaty of Paris took 2 years to work out.
4. George Washington stated, “The citizens of America
are…possessed of absolute freedom and independency.”
Conditions/Provisions of the
Treaty of Paris, 1783
1.
Established British recognition of the United
States.
2.
Established the borders as north to the Great
Lakes, west to the Mississippi River & south to
Spanish Florida.
3.
Allowed for Americans to settle west of the original
13 colonies.
Review
1. Why was American victory at Saratoga so
important?
2. Who were the three leaders of the Partisan
Troops?
3. What battle was the turning point of the war in
SC?
4. What made the Battle of Camden so unique?

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