Day2_Institutional and legislative systems for

Report
INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE SYSTEMS
FOR
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN ARAB CITIES –
A TALE OF THREE CITIES - AQABA,
DJIBOUTI & BEIRUT
DR. FADI HAMDAN
SYNOPSIS
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Objectives
Background
Methodology
National Situation Analysis
Construction of Risk Within Cities
Existing Policies for DRR
Existing Institutions for DRR
Recommendations
OBJECTIVES
• A review of the existing policies and
institutional systems for disaster risk
management in three Arab cities (Aqaba,
Beirut and Djibouti)
• Inform the development of the Mayor’s
declaration
• Apprise participants of the Arab conference
on DRR on the strengths and weaknesses of
the existing
BACKGROUND – AMDGR PRIORITY
AREAS
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Food security;
Poverty reduction;
Adaptation to climate change;
Youth employment and decent work;
Gender equality
With respect to MDG7 (Ensure Environmental Sustainability), the
report indicates that while the Arab region as a whole only
contributes about 5% of the global carbon dioxide emissions, the
impacts of climate change on the region are of major concern to
policy makers due to its dependence on climate-sensitive
agriculture, as well as the concentration of population and
economic activity in flood-prone urban coastal zones. Seismic Risk
Not recognized
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT
FOR MDGs – 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. Integrating disaster risk reduction into socio-economic development
planning and programmes will safeguard development investments
2. Making disaster risk reduction an essential part of poverty reduction
strategies and programmes will protect and enrich the poor and
near-poor
3. Making schools, health facilities, and water and sanitation
infrastructure disaster resilient will protect access to universal
education, and primary health and emergency care.
4. Empowering women in disaster risk reduction will accelerate
achievement of the MDGs
5. Curbing rapid / ill-planned urban growth will decrease disaster
risks.
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT
FOR MDGs – MDG 1 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. Apply disaster risk reduction in climate change adaptation
2. Support farmers to integrate drought and flood risk assessment into
their agricultural and land-use planning
3. Improve farmers’ access to insurance and fair terms of credit for
disaster proofing their livelihoods,
4. Make agriculture environmentally sustainable through sound natural
resource management.
5. Support the urban poor’s income generating activities to give them
more disaster - resilient income.
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT
FOR MDGs – MDG 2 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. Make all schools safer from disasters
2. Teach disaster risk reduction in all primary schools as part of the
national curriculum
3. Ensure that schools in high-risk areas have developed and
implemented disaster preparedness and contingency plans
4. Increase disaster resilience of the poorest and most vulnerable
children
5. Pursue disaster resilient poverty reduction strategies and
programmes
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT
FOR MDGs– MDG 3 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. Mainstream disaster risk reduction into women-focused
development work.
2. Integrate women’s needs and concerns into a broad based
community development agenda in disaster prone areas.
3. Make existing disaster risk reduction policies and programmes
gender sensitive,
4. Make sure disaster-vulnerable families can afford to educate their
daughters.
5. Promote girls’ participation and leadership in disaster risk
education through school-based community learning and
development projects
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT FOR
MDGs– MDG 4, 5 & 6 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. All new hospitals and health facilities need to be hazard-resistant,
and existing health facilities must be assessed and retrofitted if
necessary.
2. Train and drill maternal and primary health workers and hospital
workers in disaster preparedness
3. Ensure safe, hazard-resistant water supply
4. Reduce poverty and hunger in drought-vulnerable rural areas
through drought risk reduction focused on crop management, water
management and income diversification.
5. Increase women’s disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction
capabilities through gender-sensitive education and community
leadership
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT
FOR MDGs – MDG 7 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. Use disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation
arguments to promote better environmental management.
2. Increase rural drought resilience.
3. Pilot and roll out good practices in disaster risk reduction for urban
slum dwellers.
4. Mainstream disaster risk reduction into urban development,
particularly focusing on land-use planning, construction and water
and sanitation.
5. Assess and, if necessary, retrofit water and sewage infrastructure
to make it resistant to earthquakes, landslides and floods,
BACKGROUND – DRR AN INSTRUMENT
FOR MDGs – MDG 8 - 5 PRIORITY AREAS
1. Get political momentum behind binding international targets on disaster
risk reduction, using climate change adaptation targets already set
2. Target direct / multilateral development aid towards investment in disaster
risk reduction in order to get the best value for the development dollar.
3. Mobilize broad partnerships that bring together many sectors, developing
and developed countries alike, garnering their political support
4. Transfer technology from governments and private enterprises to
vulnerable countries and communities so as to support the best early
warning systems and hazard-resistant construction methods
5. Initiate dialogues between developed and least developed countries on
debt swaps for investment in disaster risk reduction.
METHODOLOGY
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
• Economic (Income, Employment, Household Assets,
Finance and Savings, Budget and Subsidy)
• Institutional (Mainstreaming of DRR & CCA effectiveness of
city institutions to respond, effectiveness of prevention and
correction policies, collaboration with other organizations,
good governance)
• Natural (Severity and frequency of natural hazards,
availability of eco-system services, land-use in natural
terms, environmental policy and food security)
• Physical (Electricity, Water, Sanitation and Waste Disposal,
Accessibility of roads, Housing, Landuse)
• Social (Population, Health, Education and Awareness, Social
Capital, Community Preparedness During a Disaster)
METHODOLOGY - VULNERABILITY AND
RISK DRIVERS CONSTRUCT RISKS
Factors affecting Vulnerability
i. Physical
ii. Natural
iii. Social
iv. Institutional
v. Economic
Risk Drivers
i. Unchecked Urban
Expansion
ii. Environmental
Degradation
iii. Weak Governance
iv. Poverty
METHODOLOGY– TEN ESSENTIALS FOR
MAKING CITIES MORE RESILIENT
1. Put in place organization and coordination to understand and reduce
disaster risk
2. Assign a budget for disaster risk reduction and provide incentives for
homeowners, low income stakeholders
3. Maintain up to date data on hazards and vulnerabilities. Prepare
risk assessments to inform urban plans
4. Invest in and maintain critical infrastructure that reduces risk, such
as flood drainage
5. Assess the safety of all schools and health facilities and upgrade
these as necessary.
METHODOLOGY– TEN ESSENTIALS FOR
MAKING CITIES MORE RESILIENT
6. Apply and enforce realistic, risk compliant building regulations and
land use planning principles
7. Ensure that education programmes and training on disaster risk
reduction are in place in schools and local communities.
8. Protect ecosystems and natural buffers to mitigate floods, storm
surges and other hazards
9. Install early warning systems and emergency management capacities
in your city
10. After any disaster, ensure that the needs of the affected population
are placed at the centre of reconstruction, with support for them
and their community organizations.
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS –
AQABA, JORDAN- HAZARDS
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Earthquakes
Flooding
Drought
Locusts
Storms
Technological
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA,
JORDAN– PREVIOUS DISASTERS
Affected
Disaster
Date
Earthquake
1927
Unknown
242
Flooding
1963
Unknown
25
Flooding
1965
500
0
Flooding
1966
5792
295
Drought
1966
180,000
0
Epidemic
1981
715
4
Flooding
1987
29
9
Flooding
1991
18,000
8
Earthquake
2004
19
0
Terror attack
2005
100
60
Floods
2006
25
6
Population
Deaths
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA,
JORDAN– NATIONAL POLICIES ON DRR
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Master plan for land use in Jordan
Earthquake resistance building code
Task force for monitoring building construction – GAM
Environment Conservation Law
EIAs
Temporary Public Health Law
Municipalities Law No. (29) for 1955 and its
amendments
• National Disaster and Emergency Risk Management
Plan (NDRMP) issued in 2004
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA,
JORDAN – NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ON DRR
• Higher Council of Civil Defence (HCCD) and its
committees in the administrative divisions are
responsible for implementing the actions
identified in the plan Earthquake resistance
building code
• Three subcommittees: media, relief and
earthquake
• The relief and earthquake committees have
developed detailed terms of reference
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – AQABA,
JORDAN – LEGISLATION REVIEW
• Proposed a suggestion for drawing up a
disaster management law (the higher
commission law for managing disasters)
• Tasks of the commission:
– Control disaster management in all stages
– Achieve consistency and integration among all
ministries, public and private institutions
– Optimal use of capabilities and resources
• Law yet to be passed
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS –
BEIRUT, LEBANON - HAZARDS
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Earthquakes
Tsunamis
Floods
Forest Fires
Storms
Technological
Climate change
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT,
LEBANON – PREVIOUS DISASTERS
Threshold Type
Threshold Limit
Mortality threshold
30 people killed
Houses Destroyed Threshold
600 houses destroyed
Disaster
Flooding in the Abu
Ali River in Tripoli
Date
1955
Affected
Population
Exact figure
Deaths
200
Unknown but
Earthquake in Srifa
1956
estimated in
120
Storm
1983
thousands
39
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT,
LEBANON – NATIONAL POLICIES
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High Relief Committee
Disaster Risk Management Unit
Public Safety Decree for Earthquakes and Fires
National landuse Master Plan for Lebanon
Law of Municipalities
Environment Protection Law
Civil Defense Law
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT,
LEBANON – NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
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High Relief Committee
Civil Defense
Lebanese Army
CDR
Ministry of Environment
Ministry of Public Works and transportation
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – BEIRUT,
LEBANON – LEGISLATION REVIEW
• Proposed a suggestion for drawing up a
disaster management law
• Proposed draft national strategy for disaster
risk management
• Yet to be approved
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS –
DJIBOUTI CITY, DJIBOUTI - HAZARDS
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Drought
Flash floods
Earthquakes
Volcanism
Climate change and rising sea levels
Epidemics
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI
CITY, DJIBOUTI – PAST DISASTERS
Natural Disaster
Flood
Flood
Drought
Flood
Drought
Drought
Flood
Flood
Flood
Epidemic
Wind storm
Drought
Epidemic
Epidemic
Drought
Drought
Epidemic
Flood
Flood
Drought
Drought
Drought
Year
1977
1978
1980
1981
1984
1988
1989
1993
1994
1994
1995
1997
1998
1999
2000
2000
2001
2004
2005
2007
2008
Total Dead
0
25
0
0
10
0
145
10
0
0
50
43
0
0
4
0
230
0
0
0
N. of Affected People Damage US$ million
91 000
106000
14 5000
10 2000
80 000
30 000
15 0300
20 000
120 000
239
775
100 000
2 424
2 000
100 000
150 000
419
95 000
115 000
42750
150000
284000
2 500
1 100
2 119
1 600
NA
NA
NA
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI
CITY, DJIBOUTI – NATIONAL POLICIES
• National Strategy for disaster risk management in
Djibouti
• Law No. 140 which set the national policy for
disaster risk management in Djibouti which was
issued in 2006
• National environment protection plan
• National plan for climate change adaptation
• Seismic code
• National housing and landuse plan
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI
CITY, DJIBOUTI – NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
• The Executive Secretary for Disaster Risk Management
is mandated to carry out all tasks related to disaster
risk management, as per Decree 2006, 0192/PR/MID
Institutional Framework for Disaster Risk Management,
2006
• Prior to this law the Civil Protection was mandated to
carry out tasks related to disaster risk management as
per decree
• Directorate of Habitat and Urbanism within the
Ministry of Habitat, Urbanism and Environment
• Directorate of Environment within the Ministry of
Habitat, Urbanism and Environment
NATIONAL SITUATION ANALYSIS – DJIBOUTI
CITY, DJIBOUTI – LEGISLATION REVIEW
• One of the main challenges is the need to
reform the Executive Secretariat and empower
it to become capable of performing all its
tasks related to DRM.
• To this end, a reorganization of the Executive
Secretariat to become a fully functional unit
has been proposed.
• This proposal is currently under review by the
government.
A TALE OF THREE CITIES
• Similar in one main issue: on the coast, with a
port having an important (current and for the
future) very important role to the national
economy
• Ports compete for trade and cities compete
for investment
• Port is relied upon by different industries
within the country and in other countries
• There was another port, just like that….
LEGISLATION AND INSTITUTIONS NEED
TO EVOLVE
• Unprecedented levels of increased urban population,
coupled with increased urban poverty
• Economic challenges including the fiscal gap between
municipalities
• Social challenges including lack of access to basic urban
services, housing and employment
• Urban environmental challenges
• Spatial challenges related to urban fragmentation and
segregation
• Political and institutional challenges related to good
governance and participation
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES
(TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION)
• Governance
– Two way communication (not simply disseminate information or
raise awareness on initiatives)
– Urban risk governance frameworks
– Forums to facilitate urban risk governance
– Who decides about high risk and time scale to reduce risk (or not to
do anything)? A person? A position in public sector or a consultant /
advisor? Are they known? Are they accountable?
• Risk Assessments
– Social, economic, physical, natural and institutional factors
– Future hazards (effect of climate change on cities, effect of rising
sea levels)
– May help to incorporate DRR into development
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES
(TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION)
• Risk Management
– A truly balanced portfolio of corrective, prospective and
compensatory approaches
– Corrective means addressing: illegal settlements, high slum
to urban ratios, slums just outside city?
– A truly balanced portfolio between retain and reduce,
insure and reinsure and transfer to capital market through
disaster bonds
– A truly balanced portfolio between extensive and intensive
• Knowledge and Awareness Raising
– Link research outputs to public and private sectors
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES
(TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION)
• Bridging the Urban Divide (Urban perspective)
– Identify and reform exclusionary planning practices,
regulations and administrative procedures
– Commit to inclusive development and acknowledge right
of city to all its citizens, including the poor and the
marginalized by addressing root causes of poverty and
social exclusion, such as slum improvement, infrastructure
development and improving access of low-income groups
to basic public services (reduce social, physical and
economic factors contributing to vulnerability)
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES
(TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION)
• Bridging the Urban Divide (Holistic Inclusive Development Policies)
– Recent review of MDGs (2011) identified gaps in approach
towards achieving MDGs (parallel with HFA?), due to
compartmentalization
– Recognize the five essential dimensions of the development
process (social, economic, environmental, political and cultural)
– A result of the contribution to all stakeholders, hence need for a
participatory approach in the decision making process
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES
(TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION)
• Bridging the Urban Divide (Inclusive Social Development Policies)
– Employment policies as a tool of convergence between social
and economic policies (tool for reducing economic factors
contributing to DRR vulnerability)
– Affordable and safe water and wastewater, education and
housing services (tool for reducing physical factors contributing
to DRR vulnerability)
– Cross sectoral policies (women, youth, community, etc) as a tool
for promoting dialogue and inclusion leading to true effective
participation (tool for reducing institutional factors contributing
to DRR vulnerability)
LESSONS APPLICABLE TO OTHER ARAB CITIES
(TO INFORM MAYOR’S DECLARATION)
• Bridging the Urban Divide (Inclusive Economies)
– Pro-poor, pro-job creation economies with social protection for
the most vulnerable (identified in GAR 2011 as a tool for
reducing economic factors contributing to DRR vulnerability)
– Broad-based economies capable of continuously expanding the
groupings benefiting from it (regions, sectors, enterprise sizes)
(tool for reducing economic, social and institutional factors
contributing to DRR vulnerability)
– Economy able to reduce differences (in incomes, between
regions, urban and rural, men and women, other gender
dimensions) - (tool for reducing economic, social and
institutional factors contributing to DRR vulnerability)
URBAN RISK GOVERNANCE
• Its not an exclusive western idea
• Plato (347 BC) spoke about the just city-state
• Al-Farabi (950) spoke about the characteristics of the
just city state - ’‫‘المعلم الثاني‬
• Ibn-Khaldun (1332-1382) spoke extensively about
the development of urbanism and just cities
Many thanks for listening
ُ ‫و‬
‫شكراً على حسن إِص َغائكم‬

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