A Dividing Nation

Report
Pick up an Interactive Notebook packet
and answer the “Processing” questions
(#1-3)
CONFRONTING THE ISSUE
OF SLAVERY
Chapter 21
Section 2



Northwest Ordinance of
1787
Process for forming new
states
Unspoken agreement to
keep free states and
free states equal
Questions About Missouri



Northerners questioned whether
Missouri should be slave or free
Allowing Missouri to be entered as a
slave state would open slavery to the
Louisiana Territory and beyond
A northerner’s nightmare
The Tallmadge Amendment


Rep. James Tallmadge
suggested that
Missouri could only be
entered as free
Sparked debate on
states’ rights and
slavery
A Deadlocked Congress




North had more representatives in the
House
Equal in the Senate
Southern senators able to block
anti-slave laws
Missouri would change that
A Deadlocked Congress (continued)

Tallmadge Amendment awakened
strong anti-slavery feelings

Anti-Slavery petitions sent to Congress

House approved Tallmadge Amendment

Defeated in Senate
THE MISSOURI
COMPROMISE
Chapter 21
Section 3
The Missouri Compromise



Congress returned to the debate in
1820
Maine was trying to achieve statehood
as a free state
Southerners threatening secession and
civil war
A Compromise is Reached



Compromise crafted by Rep. Henry Clay
Admitted Missouri as slave and Maine as
free
Drew a line through the Louisiana Territory
North of the line = Future free states
 South of the line = Future slave states

Reactions to the Compromise



Unpopular decision
Northerners viewed it as the easy way
out
Southerners disliked the ban on slavery
in future western states
THE MISSOURI
COMPROMISE UNRAVELS
Chapter 21
Section 4
The “Gag Rule”



Abolitionist movement flooded Congress
with petitions
Abolitionists wanted Congress to question
slavery in the District of Columbia
Congress decided to set aside all antislavery petitions and “gag” all debate on
the issue
The “Gag Rule” (continued)


John Quincy Adams
proposed that no one
could be born into
slavery after 1845
Congress refused his
proposal
Southern Fears



Nat Turner’s rebellion
created fear in the
south
Created stricter laws
on transport of slaves
Reward for arresting
abolitionists
Fugitive Slaves
Slavery in the Territories



Gag rule delayed the slavery debate for
10 years
Wilmot Proviso added to a bill requesting
funds for Mexican-American War
“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude
shall ever exist” in the territory acquired
from Mexico
Slavery in the Territories (continued)

Southerners opposed the Wilmot
Proviso

Passed in the House

Rejected in Senate
Statehood for California



Southerners proposed
extending the Missouri
Compromise line to the
Pacific
Rejected by Northerners
Applied for statehood in
1849 as a free state
Statehood for California (continued)

California would upset the balance
between slave and free states

Deadlocked Congress once again

South continued threats of secession
THE COMPROMISE OF
1850
Chapter 21
Section 5
Something for Everyone

Henry Clay’s plan

Admitted California


Allowed N. Mexico
and Utah to decide on
slavery
Ended slavery in D.C.
Something for Everyone (continued)


Called for passing a strong fugitive
slave act
Made it easier to find and reclaim
runaway slaves
The Compromise is Accepted


Congress debated Clay’s compromise
for 9 months
Accepted in 1850 after heated
discussion and threats of civil war
THE COMPROMISE OF
1850 FAILS
Chapter 21
Section 6
The Fugitive Slave Act



Southerners did not do enough to
ensure the success of the act
Northerners did not want to enforce the
act
Denied all rights of captured slaves
The Fugitive Slave Act (continued)



Jailed people who helped escaped
slaves
Northerners ridiculed slave catchers
Almost impossible to catch slaves in the
north
Uncle Tom’s Cabin



Written by Harriet
Beecher Stowe
First published as short
stories in an
abolitionist newspaper
Published in 1852 as a
full novel
The Ostend Manifesto and the KansasNebraska Act




Ostend Manifesto was a message sent from
three American diplomats to the Secretary of
State
President Pierce was trying to purchase Cuba
The message called for the seizure of Cuba by
force
Northerners believed Cuba was going to be a
slave state
The Ostend Manifesto and the KansasNebraska Act (continued)


Wanted to build a railroad to
California
Believed the project would happen if
the Great Plains was organized into
states
The Ostend Manifesto and the KansasNebraska Act (continued)



Kansas and Nebraska Act
Created two new territories, Kansas and
Nebraska (obviously)
Abolished the Missouri Compromise and
allowed citizens of a territory to vote to
allow slavery
Bloodshed in Kansas



Most new settlers were peaceful
farmers
Others came to support or oppose
slavery
Two separate governments created
Bloodshed in Kansas (continued)


On May 21, 1856, pro-slavery activists
burned hotels, looted homes, destroyed
printing presses
In response, John Brown and his sons
killed five slave supporters with swords
Violence in Congress


Senator Charles
Sumner suspected
Stephen Douglass had
tried to make Kansas a
slave state
Sumner described the
“crimes against
Kansas” as being in
favor of slavery
Violence in Congress (continued)


Sumner verbally
attacked Senator
Butler on his proslavery stance
Preston Brooks, Butler’s
nephew beat Sumner
with a metal tipped
cane on the senate
floor
Violence in Congress (continued)



Took Sumner over 3
years to recover
Southerners
applauded Brooks
Sent him replacement
canes
THE DRED SCOTT DECISION
Chapter 21
Section 7
The Dred Scott Decision

Dred Scott was a slave
who traveled to
Wisconsin with his
master
 Slavery
was banned in
Wisconsin

Scott claimed that his
stay in Wisconsin
made him free
Questions of the Case

9 Supreme Court Justices total
5
from the south
 4 from the north


Was Dred Scott a citizen?
Did his time in Wisconsin make him a
free man?
Two Judicial Bombshells

Scott could not sue for his freedom
because he was not a citizen
 No
African American could ever become a
citizen

The Missouri compromise was
unconstitutional
Two Judicial Bombshells



The Dred Scott decision opened slavery
to all territories
Protected “property rights” of slave
owners
Outraged Northerners
FROM COMPROMISE TO
CONFLICT
Chapter 21
Section 8
From Compromise to Crisis


Republican Party forms with anti-slavery
beliefs
Abraham Lincoln nominated to run for
Senate as a Republican
The Lincoln-Douglass Debates



Stephen Douglass
believed in half free,
half slave
Lincoln believed slavery
was a moral issue
Lincoln lost the election
but turned into a
national figure
John Brown’s Raid



Anti-slavery extremist
Wanted to capture
guns and ammo to
create slave revolts
Raided the federal
arsenal at Harpers
Ferry, VA
John Brown’s Raid (continued)



All of Brown’s followers either captured
or killed
Told followers: You "will never get out
alive"
Many Northerners believed Brown was
a hero
THE ELECTION OF 1860
AND SECESSION
Chapter 21
Section 9
The Election of 1860 and Secession



Republicans unite behind Lincoln
Democrats split between north and
south
Constitutional Union Party forms
Abraham Lincoln is Elected President



Division in parties
allows Lincoln to be
elected president
South now in the
minority
Feared the
abolishment of slavery
The South Secedes from the Union



Lincoln would not interfere with slavery
in the south
He would enforce the Fugitive Slave Act
He would not allow slavery to extend to
the territories
The South Secedes from the Union



South Carolina is the first state to leave
the United States
Six states follow
Formed the Confederate States of
America February, 1861
The Civil War Begins



Lincoln becomes president March 4th,
1861
Declares secession wrong and
unconstitutional
Attack on Fort Sumter by the
Confederates
The Civil War Begins

Fort Sumter surrendered after 33 hours

Wave of patriotism in the North


Showed that the South was not afraid
of using force
Official beginning of the Civil War

similar documents