Change in Quality of Life: CASP-19

Report
Active Ageing, Wellbeing and Learning in
Later Life
Andrew Jenkins
Institute of Education, University of London, UK
Presentation for Cedefop/European Commission
Learning Later in Life Seminar
21st September 2011, Brussels
1
Research Questions
• Does participation in learning in later life
have beneficial effects on wellbeing?
• Are some types of learning more beneficial
than others?
2
Potential Outcomes of Learning
[the three capitals framework, from Schuller, 2004]
• Human capital
» Knowledge and skills
• Social capital
» Social and civic participation, friends, networks
• Identity capital
» Self-esteem, locus of control, sense of purpose, critical
thinking
3
English Longitudinal Study of Ageing:
Overview
• Original sample taken from 3 sweeps of Health Survey of England (1998,
1999, 2001)
• ELSA is representative of the English 50+ population in private households
at the baseline (2002/03)
• ELSA Wave 1: 2002/03; ELSA Wave 2, 2004/05; ELSA Wave 3, 2007
• Sample size at Wave 1: approx 11,000
• Data available from UK Data Archive
4
Information on learning in ELSA
• Current participation in music, arts or evening
classes
• Current participation in gym/exercise classes
• Recent or current participation in formal education
or training course
5
Per Cent
Learning Participation: ELSA Wave 1
Type of Course, by Gender
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Men
Women
Formal course
Evening class
Type of learning
6
Gym visit / exercise class
Learning Participation: ELSA Wave 1
Type of Course, by Age Band
30
25
PerCent
20
50 to less than 60
15
60 to less than 70
70 to less than 80
10
80 plus
5
0
Formal course
Evening class
Type of Learning
7
Gym visit / exercise
class
Subjective Well-being Measures in
ELSA
• Quality of Life: CASP-19. CASP means control,
autonomy, self-realisation, pleasure
• GHQ-12. General Health Questionnaire
• Life Satisfaction. SWLS – Satisfaction With Life
Scale (Diener)
8
CASP-19 is a theory based Quality of Life Measure
developed under the UK’s
Economic and Social Research Council’s
Growing Older Programme (2000-2003)
See “Quality of Life and the third age: key predictors of CASP19”. Wiggins, Higgs, Hyde and Blane. (2004). Special Issue of
Ageing and Society. Vol 24(3), pp.1-16.
Concepts and indicators……
Quality of life
Concepts and indicators……
Item 1
Control &
Autonomy
Item 2
Item 3
Quality of life
Item 4
Selfrealisation
Pleasure
Item 19
Examples of some of the CASP-19 items
CONTROL & AUTONOMY
 My age prevents me from doing the things I would like to do*
 I feel that what happens to me is out of my control *
 I feel left out of things *
 I can do the things I want to do
 I feel that I can please myself what I do
 Shortage of money stops me doing things I want to do *
* reverse code
12
Examples of some of the CASP-19 items
SELF- REALISATION
 I feel full of energy these days
 I feel that life is full of opportunities
 I feel that the future looks good for me
13
Examples of some of the CASP-19 items
PLEASURE
 I look forward to each day
 I feel that my life has meaning
 I enjoy the things that I do
14
GHQ-12
Twelve items e.g. Have you recently.....
…been able to concentrate on whatever you’re doing?*
Better than
Same as
Less than
Much less
usual
usual
usual
than usual
…lost much sleep over worry?*
Not at
No more
Rather more
Much more
all
than usual
than usual
than usual
…felt constantly under strain?*
Not at
No more
Rather more
Much more
all
than usual
than usual
than usual
* Reverse coded.
Each coded on 4-point scale from 0 to 3, maximum score 36
15
Satisfaction with Life Scale
•
•
•
•
“In most ways my life is close to my ideal”
“The conditions of my life are excellent”
“I am satisfied with my life”
“So far I have got the important things I want in
life”
• “If I could live my life again, I would change
almost nothing”
Each coded on 7-point scale, from strongly agree to strongly disagree, and then
summed to obtain score (minimum 0, maximum 30)
16
Subjective Wellbeing Measures in
each ELSA Wave
ELSA WAVE
Wave 1
Wave 2
Wave 3
2002
2004
2007
Quality of Life
(CASP-19)
√
√
√
Wellbeing
(GHQ-12)
√
Life Satisfaction
SWLS
17
√
√
√
Summary statistics on the
outcome variables
Quality of Life
CASP-19
Wellbeing
GHQ-12
Life Satisfaction
SWLS
Mean
43.3
25.6
21.2
SD
8.3
4.5
6.2
Min
0
0
0
Max
57
36
30
18
Method (1): estimation strategy
• Interest: statistical associations between measures of wellbeing
(response) and measures of learning (explanatory)
• Method issue 1: other observable factors influencing wellbeing
» Control for these observable factors in multiple regression model
• Method issue 2: unobservable (but fixed) characteristics influencing both
wellbeing and participation in learning
» Use change in wellbeing, rather than level of wellbeing as
response variable
•
19
Method (2): dealing with
dropout and non-response
Longitudinal survey: people tend to drop out over time (attrition)
» Use probability weights to allow for dropout from the survey
(standard set of weights supplied with ELSA survey)
Respondents don’t answer all questions: a problem for multiple regression
» Use multiple imputation to overcome this.
(specifically imputation by chained equations in Stata)
20
Multiple regression models for
change in outcome
control variables entered in stages
1. level of outcome variable
2. Age, gender, highest qualification
3. Marital status, work status, income, health status, in
pain, mobility, support from family/friends
4. Change in partner status, work status, physical
health and mobility variables
21
Summarising the multiple regression models
(models with all controls included)
Formal education/
training course
Music/arts/evening
class
Change in
Quality of Life
(CASP-19)
0.120
Change in
Wellbeing
(GHQ-12)
-0.034
Change in Life
Satisfaction
(SWLS)
0.086
[0.58]
[-0.22]
[0.45]
0.716
0.361
0.723
[3.49]***
[2.27]**
[3.78]***
Gym/exercise
class
0.271
0.016
0.028
[1.56]
[0.12]
[0.18]
No of observations
6,113
5,641
5,518
Absolute values of t-statistics in parentheses. Significant at *10%, **5%, ***1%
Magnitude of ‘effects’ of
adult learning?
Quality of Life: mean decline in CASP-19 score between 2 waves approx
0.5; compares to an increase of approx 0.7 associated with
participation in adult learning (music/arts/evening classes)
Life satisfaction: score typically declines by 1 point between 2 waves;
compares to an increase of approx 0.7 associated with participation
in adult learning (music/arts/evening classes)
23
Analysis of sub-groups
 Analysis of impact of music/arts/evening classes on wellbeing
showed few differences by sub-group (gender, age group, work
status, marital status)
 Evidence that those with higher education who participated in
learning had larger gains in wellbeing than people with no
qualifications who participated in learning
24
Summary of main results

Evidence that participation in learning linked to increased wellbeing

Participation in music/arts/evening classes remains significantly
associated with wellbeing, even after allowing for many other factors

Other forms of learning, including formal education and training
courses, not associated with increased wellbeing (after allowing for
other factors)
25
What are the implications of these findings?
•
Learning in later life can have an impact on individual wellbeing
 A contribution to ‘successful ageing’
•
Only some types of learning have direct impact on wellbeing
 Participation in non-vocational learning i.e. leisure classes
 No evidence that formal education/training courses have an effect
•
26
Key message for policy
 While vocational training is important in many respects other forms of
learning, including learning for pleasure/interest, should not be
neglected
Implications (continued)
•
The research does not rule out vocational training having an indirect
impact on wellbeing
•
For example, older people who regard themselves as unemployed
have much lower wellbeing (on average) than those who are in
employment
•
So IF vocational training helps to keep older adults in employment
then it would contribute to wellbeing in an indirect way
27
ADDITIONAL SLIDES
28
600
400
0
200
Frequency
800
1000
Change in Quality of Life: CASP-19
(ELSA waves 1 to 2)
-40
29
-20
0
20
Change in CASP-19 (Wave 1 to 2)
40
-1
-2
-3
-4
Change in CASP-19 Score
0
Change in Quality of Life
by Age Band
50s
30
60s
70s
80s
90 plus
20
0
-20
-40
Change in CASP-19 (Wave 1 to 2)
40
Change in Quality of Life
and Level at Wave 1
10
31
20
30
40
score on CASP-19 at wave1
50
60
Multiple regression model of Learning on
change in Quality of Life (CASP-19)
(1)
Formal course
Music, Arts or evening class
Gym or exercise class
Observations
R-squared
Adult Learning variables
Controls
6113
0.0960
None
CASP 19 at wave
1 only
(2)
0.571
(2.45)**
0.694
(3.06)***
0.913
(4.93)***
5769
0.1049
All
CASP 19 at wave
1 only
Absolute value of t statistics in parentheses
* significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%
32
(3)
0.203
(0.86)
0.726
(3.14)***
0.497
(2.66)***
5629
0.1477
All
All Wave 1
controls
(4)
0.257
(1.10)
0.721
(3.16)***
0.294
(1.59)
5526
0.1941
All
All Wave 1
controls and
changes
by Wave 2

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