Comparison and Contrast - Online Academic Writing

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UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
FOUR
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Chapter Overview:
 What is comparison and contrast?
Comparison and contrast paragraph
 Planning a comparison and contrast composition
 Writing a comparison and contrast composition
 Organizational patterns:
 Organization by subject
 Point-by-point organization
 Comparison and contrast vocabulary
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Comparison and contrast:
A Comparison or Contrast composition is a
composition in which you either compare
something or contrast something. A
comparison essay is an essay in which you
emphasize the similarities, and a contrast essay
is an essay in which you emphasize the
differences. We use comparison and contrast
thinking when deciding which university to
attend, which car to buy, or whether to drive a
car or take a bus or an airplane to a vacation
site.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Comparison paragraph:
Moths and butterflies are closely related and look very much
alike; however, they differ from each other in four ways. First, most moths are
active at night, but most butterflies are active during the day. Butterflies fly
from flower to flower sucking their “nectar”. In contrast, moths are attracted by
lights and fly continuously around lamps. Second, when moths rest, they
spread their wings out. Butterflies, in contrast, hold their wings straight up.
Third, their antennae are also different. While the antennae of most moths are
hair-like and pointed, all butterflies have knobs at the end of their antennae.
Finally, the bodies of most moths are thick whereas the bodies of butterflies
are thin.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Comparison paragraph:
Moths and butterflies are closely related and look very much alike;
however, they differ from each other in four ways. First, most moths are active
at night, but most butterflies are active during the day. Butterflies fly from
flower to flower sucking their “nectar”. In contrast, moths are attracted by
lights and fly continuously around lamps. Second, when moths rest, they
spread their wings out. Butterflies, in contrast, hold their wings straight up.
Third, their antennae are also different. While the antennae of most moths are
hair-like and pointed, all butterflies have knobs at the end of their antennae.
Finally, the bodies of most moths are thick whereas the bodies of butterflies
are thin.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Planning
Michael has two brothers, Nick and Joe. Michael decided to write about his two brothers. Look at
the following table in which he listed the differences between Nick and Joe.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Writing
This is Michael’s final draft.
My two brothers
Most people assume that sisters and brothers have many things in common.
This is not always true. Both my brothers, Nick and Joe, have the same parents and
the same background, but they differ considerably in appearance and lifestyle.
Nick, the younger one, has long, curly hair and a beard. He usually dresses
casually in blue jeans and a T-shirt. He is a cook in a small restaurant. Because the
restaurant is near his home, he rides his bicycle to work. In his free time, Nick goes to
movies and plays football. He lives in the city in a studio apartment.
My brother Joe, on the other hand, looks more conservative than Nick. He
has shorter, straighter hair. He has a moustache but no beard. Because he is a
businessman, he wears a suit and tie to work. He drives his car to his downtown office
every day. In his spare time, he reads newspapers and plays soccer. Joe lives in a
large house in the suburbs with his wife and their children.
My friends cannot believe that Nick and Joe are brothers because they seem
so different.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Writing
This is Michael’s final draft.
My two brothers
Most people assume that sisters and brothers have many things in common.
This is not always true. Both my brothers, Nick and Joe, have the same parents and
the same background, but they differ considerably in appearance and lifestyle.
Nick, the younger one, has long, curly hair and a beard. He usually dresses
casually in blue jeans and a T-shirt. He is a cook in a small restaurant. Because the
restaurant is near his home, he rides his bicycle to work. In his free time, Nick goes to
movies and plays football. He lives in the city in a studio apartment.
My brother Joe, on the other hand, looks more conservative than Nick. He
has shorter, straighter hair. He has a moustache but no beard. Because he is a
businessman, he wears a suit and tie to work. He drives his car to his downtown office
every day. In his spare time, he reads newspapers and plays soccer. Joe lives in a
large house in the suburbs with his wife and their children.
My friends cannot believe that Nick and Joe are brothers because they seem
so different.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Organization by subject
One way to arrange your comparison and contrast composition is to write about
airplanes in one paragraph and to write about helicopters in the next. This method of
arrangement is called organization by subject. If you mention a particular point in
the airplane paragraph, you must mention the same point in the helicopter paragraph,
and in the same order. Look at the following outline.
Similarities and differences between airplanes and helicopters
Introduction
I. Airplanes
A. Shape and design
B. Speed
C. Direction of takeoff and flight
II. Helicopters
A. Shape and design
B. Speed
C. Direction of takeoff and flight
Conclusion
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Sample #1
The Differences Between Airplanes and Helicopters
One of the most important means of transportation is by air. Millions
of people travel by air worldwide every year. Air transportation is considered
to be the fastest and safest way of traveling. Airplanes and helicopters are
both important forms of air travel, but there are great differences between
them.
Airplanes have long, slender bodies with wings. They travel
extremely fast, reaching speeds of over 1,975 miles (3,000 Km) per hour.
Airplanes take off horizontally and can move in a forward direction only. They
need a lot of space for takeoff and landing. Airplanes regularly carry several
hundred passengers.
In contrast, helicopters have round bodies and propellers rather than
wings. They move at slower speeds. They take off vertically and can move in
any direction. Helicopters require a very small takeoff or landing space. Most
helicopters carry only two to five passengers.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Organization by point-by-point
A second way to organize your composition is to write about a particular point about
airplanes and then immediately write about the same point about helicopters. This
method is called point-by-point arrangement. An outline of this arrangement
follows.
Similarities and differences between airplanes and helicopters
Introduction
I. Shape and design
A. Airplanes
B. Helicopters
II. Speed
A. Airplanes
B. Helicopters
III. Direction of takeoff and flight
A. Airplanes
B. Helicopters
Conclusion
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Sample #2
The Differences Between Airplanes and Helicopters
Airplanes and helicopters are both important forms of air travel, but there are
great differences between them.
The first major difference between airplanes and helicopters is their shape and
design. Airplanes, for example, have long, slender bodies with wings while helicopters
have round bodies and propellers rather than wings.
Another difference between airplanes and helicopters is their speed. Airplanes
can travel extremely fast, reaching speeds of over 1,875 miles (3,000 kilometers) per hour.
Helicopters, on the other hand are much slower than airplanes.
The final difference between airplanes and helicopters is their direction of takeoff
and flight. While airplanes take off horizontally and can move in a forward direction only,
helicopters take off vertically and can move in any direction. Airplanes need a lot of space
for takeoff and landing. Helicopters, on the other hand, require a very small takeoff or
landing space. Airplanes regularly carry several hundred passengers but most helicopters
carry only two to five passengers.
Because of the great differences between airplanes and helicopters, each is used
for a specific purpose. Airplanes and helicopters, therefore, are both important forms of air
travel.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Sample #2
The Differences Between Airplanes and Helicopters
Airplanes and helicopters are both important forms of air travel, but there are
great differences between them.
The first major difference between airplanes and helicopters is their shape and
design. Airplanes, for example, have long, slender bodies with wings while helicopters
have round bodies and propellers rather than wings.
Another difference between airplanes and helicopters is their speed. Airplanes
can travel extremely fast, reaching speeds of over 1,875 miles (3,000 kilometers) per hour.
Helicopters, on the other hand are much slower than airplanes.
The final difference between airplanes and helicopters is their direction of takeoff
and flight. While airplanes take off horizontally and can move in a forward direction only,
helicopters take off vertically and can move in any direction. Airplanes need a lot of space
for takeoff and landing. Helicopters, on the other hand, require a very small takeoff or
landing space. Airplanes regularly carry several hundred passengers but most helicopters
carry only two to five passengers.
Because of the great differences between airplanes and helicopters, each is used
for a specific purpose. Airplanes and helicopters, therefore, are both important forms of air
travel.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
These are not the only ways to give coherence to a comparison paragraph. There are other
conjunctions, too. Here is a list of comparison conjunctions you can use:
Short Conjunctions
Longer Expressions
Similarly,
Likewise,
...the same...
...the same as...
...also...
..., too.
both
likewise
unlike
However,
In contrast,
By contrast,
..., but
..., yet
In the same way,
X is similar to Y in that (they)...
Like X, Y [verb]...
One way in which X is similar to
Y is (that)...
Another way in which X is
similar to Y is (that)...
In contrast,…
By contrast,…
On the other hand,
even though + [sentence]
although + [sentence]
whereas + [sentence]
unlike + [sentence]
while + [sentence]
Nevertheless,
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI
UINVERSITY OF HAIL
ENGLISH LANGUAGE CENTER
Group activity:
Open your textbook on page 136 and study the example
composition number 3 titled “crocodiles and Alligators” and
answer the questions that follow.
English 101
WRITING DEFINITIONS
HASSAN ELBADRI

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