English Words Increase vocabulary, spelling, and reading comprehension Susan Ebbers 2005 from Latin & Greek Roots Learning Objective • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.7.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). “I can use Greek and Latin word roots to *determine the meaning of words.” *determine = figure out What are we going to do today? A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic form . Affixes are added to the root to create a new word. The Latin root ject means “throw” So project can mean “to throw forward” • A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word. • Many words in the English language are based on Greek & Latin word roots. • What is a word root? Concept Example: Shrinking personal vocabularies The average high school graduate knows approximately 50,000 words. This means that average students learn roughly 2000-3,000 words a year (Graves, 2007). This translates to 8 words a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year - including weekends or summers. Susan Ebbers 2005 The average sixth grade student knows approximately 25,000 words. Importance • Knowing and using Greek and Latin word roots can help you figure out the meaning of words you don’t recognize. Why is it important to know how to use Greek and Latin word roots? • This will make you a better reader and writer. Can anyone share a different reason? Basic Terms root form: a word with no prefix or suffix added; may also be referred to as a base word inspector, thermal affix: meaningful part of a word attached before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning suffix: an affix which is placed after the stem of a word able, -ive, -ly derivation-a word formed from an existing word, root, or affix: electric, electricity Susan Ebbers 2005 prefix: an affix which is placed before the stem of a word re-, un-, dis- Derivational Suffixes • words ending with –tion are often nouns • words ending with –ive are often adjectives • words ending with –ish are often adjectives • words ending with –ity are often nouns What about -ment, -ous, -ness? Susan Ebbers 2005 Derivational suffixes change the part of speech We know that words are broken into parts that help us figure out their meaning. Suffixes Prefix Meaning Example Suffix Meaning Example re- back, again refill -ful Having careful -less joyless tri- three triplet Without, missing un- not undo -ly In the hopefully manner of Tell your partner: An example of a prefix is ______ which means ______. How do word parts like prefixes and suffixes help us _______? APK Prefixes We know that words are broken into parts that help us figure out their meaning: Prefixes: un- undo re- refill pro- for, forward Prefixes are at the beginning of words. pre- means before fix means attach, repair Suffixes: -ful joyful -ly sadly -ness kindness Suffixes are at the end of words. So, “prefix” means “attached before.” Which word part is found at the end of words? English words can have all three parts: prefix + root + suffix ab + duct + ed away from + to lead/pull + verb: past tense abducted means ”pulled or lead away from” i.e. The general was abducted by masked stranger. Roots can appear more than once, and anywhere in the word. Word Meaning geology earth study / study of the earth telegraph distance writing / writing that travels far tricycle three wheels asocial not being companionable / Conceptnot wanting to join others prefix + root + suffix • I Do • We Do retrospective retro = backwards spect = look -ive = having quality of “quality of looking backward” History is a retrospective way of looking at life. carnivore carni = meat vor = eat -e = one who “one who eats meat” What does carnivore mean? How did you know? Prefixes: Meaning and Connotation Somewhat Positive dis-, de- non- sub- pro- co- bene- in- un- mis- super- com- be- mal- anti, contra a- en-, em- ad- Susan Ebbers 2005 Often Negative prefix + root • I Do • We Do empathy enamor em- = having pathy = feeling So it means: “having feeling” en- = having amor = love What does enamor mean? “having love” The soldier had empathy for the prisoner. How do you know that? root + root • I Do • We Do pseudonym aqueduct pseudo = false nym = name ”false name” aque = water duct = to lead/pull Samuel Clemens wrote under the pseudonym “Mark Twain.” What is an aqueduct used for? How do you know that? root + suffix • I Do astrology astro = stars -logy = study of So it means: "the study of stars” How did I determine the meaning of astrology? Frame: “We determined the meaning of astrology by ______________.” • We Do biology bio = life -logy = study of So it means: “the study of life” How did we know biology meant ‘the study of life’? Frame: “We knew that biology meant ‘the study of life’ because _______________________.” A List of Greek and Latin Word Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes Root Meaning Root Meaning Root Meaning Prefix/Suffix Meaning duct to lead/pull micro small phobia fear of ab- away from tele distance spect look, see auto self a-, un-, -less not, without graph write, draw aque, aqua water rupt break em-. en-, -y, ful having, marked by bio life astr, aster stars scope see, watch retro- backwards geo earth logy, ology study of pseudo false -ive, -ic having quality of rium house cycle wheel dynam power -al result of trans across nym, nom name ject throw -able, -ible ability pathy feeling for amor love pro forward -oid resembling, like cent, centi hundred derm, derma skin vor eat greedily -or, -er, -e one who carn meat chron time soci joining in, being together ex- out of omni all, every meter measure ped, pod foot, footed bi- two struc, struct build cent hundred con, com together, with tri- three hydro water trans across -ly in the manner of Skill Steps 1. Highlight the word root (or roots). What does the word root mean? 2. Look at the remainder of the word: • What does the prefix mean? • What does the suffix mean? 3. Use the word root table to determine the meaning. Skill • Look Inside—Look Outside pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis 1. Look inside the word for known word parts: prefixes, roots or combining forms, suffixes. Susan Ebbers 2005 2. Use the analogy strategy—“I don’t know this word, but I know pneumonia and I know volcano, so by analogy, this word might have something to do with lungs and heat.” 3. Look outside the word at context clues, visuals The coal miners, coughing and wheezing, suffered from pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis. Sixty percent of the words in English texts are of Latin and Greek origin Bear et al., 1996; Henry, 1997 Susan Ebbers 2005 Developing content-specific, academic vocabulary depends on a basic understanding of Greek and Latin Content-Specific Greek Terms Studies and Sciences biology, seismology, morphology, geochronometry Animals and Plants arachnid, amphibian, chlorophyll, dinosaur, nectar Theatre and the Arts charisma, drama, chorus, muse, symphony, acoustics Susan Ebbers 2005 Anatomy and Medical Terms esophagus, thyroid, diagnosis, psoriasis, dyslexia 20 mono uni di bi du, duo tri tetra quadri penta hexa sept oct nove deca deci cent milli poly multi semi hemi Susan Ebbers 2005 Counting in Greek and Latin Learning Objective • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.7.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). “I can use Greek and Latin word roots to *determine the meaning of words.” *determine = figure out What are we going to do today? Closure • What do we call the most basic form of a word that has meaning? • What does portable mean? • Why do you think knowing and using Greek and Latin word roots is important?