What is a Root Word

Report
English Words
Increase vocabulary, spelling, and
reading comprehension
Susan Ebbers 2005
from Latin & Greek Roots
Learning Objective
• CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.7.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to
the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose,
rebel).
“I can use Greek and Latin word roots to
*determine the meaning of words.”
*determine = figure out
What are we going to do today?
A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is
the most basic form . Affixes are added to the
root to create a new word.
The Latin root ject means “throw”
So project can mean “to throw forward”
• A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word.
• Many words in the English language are based on Greek & Latin
word roots.
• What is a word root?
Concept
Example:
Shrinking personal vocabularies
 The average high school graduate knows
approximately 50,000 words.
 This means that average students learn roughly
2000-3,000 words a year (Graves, 2007).
 This translates to 8 words a day, 7 days a week,
52 weeks a year - including weekends or
summers.
Susan Ebbers 2005
 The average sixth grade student knows
approximately 25,000 words.
Importance
• Knowing and using
Greek and Latin word
roots can help you
figure out the meaning
of words you don’t
recognize.
Why is it important to know how to use
Greek and Latin word roots?
• This will make you a
better reader and writer.
Can anyone share a different reason?
Basic Terms
root form: a word with no prefix or suffix added; may
also be referred to as a base word inspector, thermal
affix: meaningful part of a word attached before or after
a root or base word to modify its meaning
suffix: an affix which is placed after the stem of a word able, -ive, -ly
derivation-a word formed from an existing word, root, or
affix: electric, electricity
Susan Ebbers 2005
prefix: an affix which is placed before the stem of a word
re-, un-, dis-
Derivational Suffixes
• words ending with –tion are often nouns
• words ending with –ive are often adjectives
• words ending with –ish are often adjectives
• words ending with –ity are often nouns
What about -ment, -ous, -ness?
Susan Ebbers 2005
Derivational suffixes change the part of speech
We know that words are broken into parts that
help us figure out their meaning.
Suffixes
Prefix
Meaning
Example
Suffix
Meaning
Example
re-
back,
again
refill
-ful
Having
careful
-less
joyless
tri-
three
triplet
Without,
missing
un-
not
undo
-ly
In the
hopefully
manner of
Tell your partner:
An example of a prefix is ______ which means ______.
How do word parts like prefixes and suffixes help us _______?
APK
Prefixes
We know that words are broken into parts that help us figure
out their meaning:
Prefixes:
un- undo
re- refill
pro- for,
forward
Prefixes are at the beginning of
words.
pre- means before
fix means attach, repair
Suffixes:
-ful
joyful
-ly
sadly
-ness kindness
Suffixes are at the end of words.
So, “prefix” means “attached
before.”
Which word part is found at the end of
words?
English words can have all three parts:
prefix + root + suffix
ab + duct + ed
away from + to lead/pull + verb: past tense
abducted means ”pulled or lead away from”
i.e. The general was abducted by masked stranger.
Roots can appear more than once,
and anywhere in the word.
Word
Meaning
geology
earth study / study of the earth
telegraph
distance writing / writing that travels far
tricycle
three wheels
asocial
not being companionable /
Conceptnot wanting to join others
prefix + root + suffix
• I Do
• We Do
retrospective
retro = backwards
spect = look
-ive = having quality of
“quality of looking backward”
History is a retrospective way of looking
at life.
carnivore
carni = meat
vor = eat
-e = one who
“one who eats meat”
What does carnivore mean?
How did you know?
Prefixes: Meaning and Connotation
Somewhat Positive
dis-,
de-
non-
sub-
pro-
co-
bene-
in-
un-
mis-
super-
com-
be-
mal-
anti,
contra
a-
en-,
em-
ad-
Susan Ebbers 2005
Often Negative
prefix + root
• I Do
• We Do
empathy
enamor
em- = having
pathy = feeling
So it means:
“having feeling”
en- = having
amor = love
What does enamor
mean?
“having love”
The soldier had empathy for the prisoner.
How do you know that?
root + root
• I Do
• We Do
pseudonym
aqueduct
pseudo = false
nym = name
”false name”
aque = water
duct = to lead/pull
Samuel Clemens wrote under the
pseudonym “Mark Twain.”
What is an aqueduct used for?
How do you know that?
root + suffix
• I Do
astrology
astro = stars
-logy = study of
So it means:
"the study of stars”
How did I determine the meaning of
astrology?
Frame: “We determined the meaning of
astrology by ______________.”
• We Do
biology
bio = life
-logy = study of
So it means:
“the study of life”
How did we know biology meant ‘the study of life’?
Frame: “We knew that biology meant ‘the study of life’
because _______________________.”
A List of Greek and Latin
Word Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes
Root
Meaning
Root
Meaning
Root
Meaning
Prefix/Suffix
Meaning
duct
to lead/pull
micro
small
phobia
fear of
ab-
away from
tele
distance
spect
look, see
auto
self
a-, un-,
-less
not, without
graph
write, draw
aque, aqua
water
rupt
break
em-. en-, -y, ful
having,
marked by
bio
life
astr, aster
stars
scope
see, watch
retro-
backwards
geo
earth
logy, ology
study of
pseudo
false
-ive, -ic
having
quality of
rium
house
cycle
wheel
dynam
power
-al
result of
trans
across
nym, nom
name
ject
throw
-able, -ible
ability
pathy
feeling for
amor
love
pro
forward
-oid
resembling,
like
cent, centi
hundred
derm, derma
skin
vor
eat greedily
-or, -er, -e
one who
carn
meat
chron
time
soci
joining in,
being
together
ex-
out of
omni
all, every
meter
measure
ped, pod
foot, footed
bi-
two
struc, struct
build
cent
hundred
con, com
together, with
tri-
three
hydro
water
trans
across
-ly
in the
manner of
Skill Steps
1. Highlight the word root (or roots).
What does the word root mean?
2. Look at the remainder of the word:
•
What does the prefix mean?
•
What does the suffix mean?
3. Use the word root table to determine the meaning.
Skill
•
Look Inside—Look Outside
pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
1. Look inside the word for known word parts:
prefixes, roots or combining forms, suffixes.
Susan Ebbers 2005
2. Use the analogy strategy—“I don’t know this word,
but I know pneumonia and I know volcano, so by
analogy, this word might have something to do with
lungs and heat.”
3. Look outside the word at context clues, visuals
The coal miners, coughing and wheezing, suffered
from pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis.
Sixty percent of the words
in English texts are of Latin
and Greek origin
Bear et al., 1996; Henry, 1997
Susan Ebbers 2005
Developing content-specific,
academic vocabulary
depends on a basic
understanding of Greek
and Latin
Content-Specific Greek Terms
Studies and Sciences
biology, seismology, morphology, geochronometry
Animals and Plants
arachnid, amphibian, chlorophyll, dinosaur, nectar
Theatre and the Arts
charisma, drama, chorus, muse, symphony, acoustics
Susan Ebbers 2005
Anatomy and Medical Terms
esophagus, thyroid, diagnosis, psoriasis, dyslexia
20
mono
uni
di
bi
du, duo
tri
tetra
quadri
penta
hexa
sept
oct
nove
deca
deci
cent
milli
poly
multi
semi
hemi
Susan Ebbers 2005
Counting in Greek and Latin
Learning Objective
• CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.7.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to
the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose,
rebel).
“I can use Greek and Latin word roots to
*determine the meaning of words.”
*determine = figure out
What are we going to do today?
Closure
• What do we call the most basic form of a word that
has meaning?
• What does portable mean?
• Why do you think knowing and using Greek and
Latin word roots is important?

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