Korean War Final ppt

The Cold War:
Development & Impact Globally
• Korea had been under Japanese occupation during WWII – after
Japan had lost the Allied forces and the Soviets agreed to divide
Korea along the 38th parallel
• Most Koreans wanted unification
• The Soviets occupied the North, and the US occupied the South
• The US created the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the South under
Syngman Rhee
• In response the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) was
founded in the North under Communist leader Kim Il-Sung
• North Korea wanted to expand its borders and communism into the
• North Korea with support from the USSR and People’s
Republic of China invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950
-Korean War was the result of both defensive and offensive
-South Korea was defending itself against a North Korean
-North Korea provoked the war by crossing the border
-Was the result of political causes:
-The US wanted to contain communism; USSR and China
wanted communism to expand
-The 38th parallel acted as a political border
Weapons & Technology
•Aircraft was the newest technology evolving in warfare at the
•First war to utilize the jet aircraft & saw some of the first
helicopters used during a war
•Helicopters used for medical evacuation
•Fighter aircraft were primarily used fir air-to air combat against
other fighters
•Bombers used to attack the ground forces & buildings
•Transport aircraft used to transport troops or equipment across
•Reconnaissance aircraft used for surveying or observation
•Weapons used by the US Army Infantry & US Marine Corps
were basically the same types used in WWII
Cost of the War
For Korea
•Cost in human lives & property was vast
•$67 billion (1953 dollars); $535 billion (2008 dollars)
•Much of North Korean land was severely damaged due aerial
For the US
•NSC-68’s recommendation to triple the defense budget was
•US defense spending increased dramatically turning at around
10% of American GNP in 1950
•Heavy American casualties and many were taken as POW’s
Role played by outside forces
• The United States asked the UN the remove the North Koreans by force,
claiming that their invasion was a violation of peace
• USSR could not veto the decision (boycotting); UN sent in troops in support
of South Korea (15 UN countries); US comprised of 90% of the UN force
• July 1 troops arrived in Korea, soon joined by 15 other nations, although
majority were American troops
 fought under UN commander American General Douglas MacArthur
• General MacArthur led the UN forces in an amphibious attack at Inchon (near
Seoul) in order to bypass Korean troops & cut them off
• Within a month he retook Seoul & drove the North Koreans back to the 38th
• Pushed North Koreans as far back as the Yalu River (Korean border w/ China)
• US redefined its war aims: Rather than just concentrating on a policy of
containment, it decided on a policy of ‘rollback’
 meant liberating North Koreans from Communist rule & reuniting Korea
• China became concerned for its own security
• November 27,1950, a force of 200,000 Chinese joined 150,000 North Koreans &
sent the UN troops into a rapid retreat
Role played by outside forces
•Pyongyang was recaptured in December
•End of 1950 North & their allies had retaken all land up to the 38th
•January 1951: UN forces recovered their technological advantage &
the Chinese army was forced to retreat
•The UN forces had technological superiority , but Chinese forces
were larger in number
•Mao provided unlimited numbers of ‘volunteers’ to defeat UN
•MacArthur suggested the use of nuclear weapons against the
 Truman against this
 scared Stalin would retaliate by using it’s own nuclear weapons
•MacArthur relieve of command in April 1951
End of the Korean War
•Battle lines stabilized near the 38th parallel  stalemate 1951-1953
•Main conflict: repatriation of POW’s
 US & UN argued for voluntary returns, Chinese would only agree
if a majority of North Koreans would return voluntarily, but this did
not happen
•Stalin did not want to accept a Communist defeat in Korea
•His death in March 1953 = critical to the end of the Korean War
•Power struggled ensued in Soviet leadership  Korea no longer
regarded as crucial to Soviet Power & influence
•New US president was Dwight Eisenhower  election was partly
based on withdrawal from Korea
•Therefore, the 2 main powers did not see Korea as vital to their
 The war ended in a ceasefire; there was no victory
 Ended on July 27th, 1953 with a truce; armistice signed
 North Korea and South Korea remain divided
 Tensions still exist today
• Longest negotiated armistice in history (negotiated over 2
years and 17 days)
• 18 official copies; tri-lingual
• Went into effect at 10 pm on July 27th, 1953
• Signed by US Army Lt. Gen. William K. Harrison, Jr., UN
Command Delegate, North Korean Gen. Nam Il, and
volunteers from the People’s Republic of China
• Purely a military document (no nation is a signatory)
Suspended open hostilities
Withdrew military forces and equipment from a
4000 meter wide zone (created a buffer between the
two zones)
Prevented both sides from entering the air, ground,
or seas on opposing sides
Released POWs
Establishes the Military Armistice Commission
(MAC) + other agencies – used to ensure that the
truce terms were followed
Division between North Korea and South Korea.
 A committee of representatives of neutral countries was
established to decide the fate of the POWs: The Neutral
Nations' Repatriation Commission
 Czechoslovakia, India, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland
 Many Chinese and North Korean POWs did not want to
return to their life under communism; staged a violent
 Decided that they could choose their own fate: either
stay or return to their home land
 September 1953: 88,559 POWs were exchanged
 The Neutral Nations’ Repatriation Commission took
custody of POWs that refused to return home
• The Korean Armistice Agreement was NOT a peace treaty;
North Korea and South Korea are still technically at war
• Was intended as a temporary measure
• General Nam Il (signatory on behalf of North Korea) said
that it was a made to be a ceasefire “until a final peace
settlement is achieved”
• Peace settlement never came
• Attempt to make peace settlements occurred in a
conference in Geneva (1954); no agreements settled
• Tensions between the two nations are still high
• Border between North Korea and South Korea is the most
heavily militarised border in the world
• During negotiations, the UN made a command for the
exchange of sick or wounded POWs; Communists agreed
• After the armistice was signed, both sides charged each
other of war crimes (torture, starvation of POWs);
N.Korea and China accused of brain washing POWs – UN
condemned such acts
• The Korean Armistice Agreement was signed by the UN
and the Communists (N.Korea and China; South Korea
not a signatory)
The two nations still remain divided
High tensions still exist
Provocations from North Korea
Precautions taken to ensure that the armistice isn’t
violated have fallen apart
 The Neutral nations Supervisory Commission, originally comprised
of Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, and Czechoslovakia now only
consists of Sweden and Switzerland
 The role of the MAC has diminished (with North Korea's refusal to
acknowledge South Korean Army general as the chief
“The Korean War Armistice Agreement is both an
important historical and currently relevant
document for the security structure of the Korean
Peninsula, Northeast Asia and beyond.” – Sarah K.
Yun, Director of Public Affairs and Regional Issues
for the Korea Economic Institute
Works Cited And Consulted
Armistice agreement for the restoration of the south korean state (1953). (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=85
Armistice ends the korean war. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Armstrong, C. (2010, May 24). The korean war never ended. Retrieved from
Jets and aircraft of the korean war. (n.d.). Retrieved from
The korean war. (2005, April 25). Retrieved from
The korean war summary & analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Timeline: North korea – key events since the end of the korean war. (2010,
November 23). Retrieved from
Signing of armistice ends korean war. (2012, July 27). Retrieved from
What the korean war cost the united states. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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