Era of Good Feelings

Report
Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe
Era of Good Feelings
• After the War of 1812, Americans had a sense
of national pride.
• Americans felt more loyalty toward the United
States than toward their state or region.
(Nationalism)
Following the War of 1812, Americans
had a sense of national pride
Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe:
5th President
Political & Economic Nationalism Develops
Nationalism: Love for one’s country
Sectionalism:
Love for one’s region or
section of a country
Economic Nationalism
• American leaders worked to bind the nation
together by creating a new national bank,
protecting American manufacturers and
improving transportation in order to link the
country together.(American System)
• Earlier, revenue tariffs provided income for the
federal government.
• The Tariff of 1816 was a protective tariff that
helped American manufacturers by taxing
imports to drive up their prices.
Economic Nationalism:
Henry Clay: “American
System”
Goal: To strengthen the
American economy
How?
National
Bank
Protective
Tariffs
Improved
Transportation
Provide low interest loans
to expand business &
industry
Re-chartered in 1816: By
Republicans
National Bank
Protective Tariff
Allows
American
businesses to
grow
Tax on
imports
Improved Transportation:
Allows people and goods to move throughout
the country faster
Canals
Roads
Internal Improvements Bill vetoed by James
Madison & James Monroe
Economic Nationalism
• Why did American leaders want to create the
Second Bank of the United States, impose a
protective tariff, and improve the nation’s
transportation system?
• They wanted to unify the nation.
American System
Developed by Congressman Henry Clay
It helped to spread
Nationalism
How it worked
Goal= eliminate foreign
competition
Plan to protect business by:
1. Reinstating a national bank
2. Protective tariffs- taxes on
foreign goods
3. Build roads and canals and
improve transportation
How- Wanted the North,
West, and South to trade
with
Judicial Nationalism
• The decision in Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee helped
establish the Supreme Court as the nation’s court of
final appeal.
• The decision in McCulloch v. Maryland upheld the
constitutionality of the Bank of the US; doctrine of
“implied powers” provided Congress more flexibility to
enact legislation(necessary and proper clause); states
could not tax national institutions.
• The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden, defined interstate
commerce to mean that anything crossing state
boundaries came under federal control
Marshall Court Decisions
McCulloch v. Maryland: Can States tax National
Programs?
1) States cannot tax the
national government
National Government over
State Governments
2) National Bank was legal
Reinforced the doctrine of
implied powers
National Bank
Gibbons v. Ogden
Q: Who has the power to
regulate navigation?
NY State gives steamboat
ferry monopoly to Ogden
A: National government
controls interstate
commerce (trade)
Political: Foreign Policy
Nationalist Goals:
Expand &
secure borders
Establish presence
in world affairs
Adams – Onis Treaty
Spain agreed to
give up Florida to
the United States
Nationalism
• Nationalism in the United States influenced
the nation to expand its borders and assert
itself in world affairs.
• Spain ceded all of Florida to the US in the
Adams-Onis Treaty.
• The Monroe Doctrine declared that the
United States would prevent other countries
from interfering in Latin American political
affairs.
The Monroe Doctrine
• Western Hemisphere was no
longer open for colonization
• European interference in
Western hemisphere viewed as
a threat to its security
• The US would not interfere in
European wars or colonies
5th President
James Monroe
Monroe Doctrine
America warns Europe to stay out of
the Western Hemisphere
The Monroe
Doctrine
Improved Transportation:
Allows people and goods to move throughout the
country faster
Canals
Roads
Internal Improvements Bill vetoed by James
Madison & James Monroe
Revolution in Transportation
• In the early 1800’s, a transportation
revolution, including the construction of the
Erie Canal, occurred in the Northern states.
• This led to great social and economic changes.
• In 1807 the steamboat called the Clermont,
designed by Robert Fulton, traveled upstream
on the Hudson River.
• Steamboats made river travel more reliable
and upstream travel possible.
Robert Fulton
& the Steamboat
The Clermont
Revolution in Transportation
• Railroads were built in America in the early
1800’s and helped settle the West and expand
trade among the nation’s regions.
• Why were railroads the most influential
method of transportation in America in the
1800’s?
• Trains traveled faster than stagecoaches or
wagons and they could go anywhere that track
was laid.
Demands of the National Economy promotes
the “Transportation Revolution”
Roads
Canals
Steamboats
Trains
Turnpikes (Toll Roads):
- Built by private companies from 1800 -1825
- Cumberland Road: Allowed wagon traffic from
the seaboard to the Ohio River Valley
Example of an Old Road
Erie Canal
“Clinton’s Big Ditch”
Opened in 1825
- Linked New York City with New Orleans
Erie Canal
Describe the Event
It helped to spread
Nationalism
A waterway was built
that connected the
Great Lakes to New
York City
•Connected the west to the
east
•Made trade and travel
easier
•Greatest invention of that
time. It allowed Americans
to brag
•Helped increase western
settlement
Erie Canal – 363 Miles long; 4 feet deep
Buffalo to New York – 10 Days
Steamboats: Faster river travel
Most important change
of the Transportation
Revolution
Fast, Reliable, and
cheaper than canals
Trains:
Changes in Transportation
It helped to spread Nationalism
•
•
•
•
Helped to connect the east to the west.
Helped with westward expansion
Led to economic growth
Brought the county closer together
A New System of Production
• The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in
the 1700’s.
• Industry developed quickly in the United
States in the early 1800’s.
• Important factors included free enterprise and
the passage of general incorporation laws. The
most important reason was private property
rights.
• Industrialization began in the Northeast,
where there were swift-flowing streams used
to power the factories.
Industrialization
Northeast
Factory System
expands:
Samuel Slater: “Father of the Factory System”
Machine: “Spinning Jenny”
Factors that lead to industrialization:
- Rivers and streams
- Large labor supply
- Capital resources
- Poor agricultural
conditions
Lowell System
All in one production
facility
“Factory Girls”
New England becomes the center of textile
production
A New System of Production
• In 1814 Francis C. Lowell opened several textile
mills in northeastern Massachusetts. He started
mass production of cotton cloth in the United
States.
• Eli Whitney developed the idea of
interchangeable parts in the gun-making
industry.
• Machines were able to produce large amounts of
identical pieces that workers assembled into
finished good.
A New System of Production
• Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph in
1832.
• He developed the Morse code for sending
messages.
• Spurred by journalists, more than 50,000
miles of telegraph wire crossed the country by
1860.
Samuel F. B. Morse
1840 – Telegraph
Economic Nationalism leads to Sectional
Specialization
The United States was growing:
The Louisiana Purchase in 1803
doubled the size of the United States
Each section develops own unique
economy
The Rise of Large Cities
• Industrialization in the US in the early to mid1800’s caused many people to move from
farms and villages to cities in search of factory
jobs and higher wages.
• Many city populations doubled or tripled.
• During the early 1800’s, agriculture was the
country’s leading economic activity.
• Most people were employed in farming until
the late 1800’s.
Family Farm
• Farming was more important in the South
than in the North because there was little
manufacturing there.
• As the North began to focus on
manufacturing, the South’s economy
continued to depend on agriculture and
slavery.
• Farming employed more people and produced
more wealth than any other kind of work.
Diversified Farming
West
Fertile farmland in Ohio and Mississippi River
Valleys
- Attracts people from the east and Europe
Small farms give way to specialized farms
Wheat:
- Northern Plains
Corn and Livestock:
-Ohio River Valley
Tobacco:
- Kentucky
Northeastern Needs:
Southern Cotton
Western food
Southern Needs:
Northern Manufactured
Goods
Western Food
Western Needs:
Northern Manufactured Goods
The Transportation Revolution led to the
development of the National Economy
North
West
South
Plantation Agriculture
South
The Cotton Gin
• Increased
– Productivity
– # of Plantations
– Cash-Crop Economy
– “King Cotton”
Inventions
Eli Whitney:
Cotton Gin: removed seeds from cotton fiber
Provides the mills with large quantities of
cotton to turn into cloth
Interchangeable Parts:
Mass production of
machine equipment
John Deere & the Steel Plow
Cyrus McCormick
& the Mechanical Reaper
Elias Howe & Isaac Singer
1840s
Sewing Machine
Southern Economy
• In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin,
which combed the seeds out of cotton bolls.
• This invention greatly increased the
production of cotton in the South and made
cotton the major cash crop.
• At the same time the cotton gin was invented,
textile mills in Europe wanted more and more
cotton.
Southern Economy
• The cotton gin made southern planters rich,
but it created a huge demand for slave labor.
• Between 1820 and 1860, the number of
enslaved people in the South almost tripled.
• The South did not industrialize as quickly as
the North and relied mostly on imported
goods.
Society in the South
• A class structure developed in the South with the
top class being planters – or plantation owners.
This group dominated the political and legal
systems.
• Yeoman Farmers, or ordinary farmers who
usually worked the land themselves, made up
most of the white population of the South.
• Near the bottom were the rural poor followed by
the African Americans, most of whom were
enslaved.
Slavery
• There were two basic labor systems for the
slaves.
• The task system was used on farms and small
plantations. Workers were given specific jobs
to finish every day.
• Slaves worked until their tasks were done, and
then they were allowed to do other things.
• Some earned money as artisans, or they
gardened or hunted for extra food.
Slavery
• Large plantations used the gang system.
Slaves were put in work gangs that labored in
the fields from sunup to sundown.
• The director of the work gang was called the
driver.
• Frederick Douglass was a former slave who
became a leader of the antislavery movement.
Slavery
• State slave codes forbade enslaved persons
from owning property or from leaving their
owner’s land without permission.
• They could not own firearms or testify in court
against a white person.
• They could not learn to read and write.
• Free African Americans lived in both the South
and the North.
Slavery
• A few were descendants of Africans brought
to the US as indentured servants in the 1700s.
• Some earned their freedom from fighting in
the American Revolution.
• Others were half-white children of
slaveholders, who had given them freedom.
• Others had bought their freedom or been
freed by their slaveholders.
Coping with Enslavement
• African Americans developed a culture that
provided them with a sense of unity, pride, and
support.
• Songs helped field workers pass the long workday
and enjoy their leisure time.
• Songs were important to African American
religion, which was one of the most important
parts of African American culture.
• Many believed in Christianity, which sometimes
included some African religious traditions.
Coping with Enslavement
• Many slaves rebelled against their forced
lifestyle.
• They held work slowdowns, broke tools, set
fires, or ran away.
• Some killed their slaveholders.
• Nat Turner, an enslaved minister who
believed that God chose him to free his
people, led a group of African Americans in an
uprising killing 50 white people before he was
hanged.
POTENTIAL EXPANSION
PROBLEMS
SLAVERY
The Missouri Compromise
• Nat Turner’s Rebellion led to harsher and
more repressive slave laws
• In 1819 Missouri applied for statehood as a
slave state.
• This set off the divisive issue as to whether
slavery should expand westward.
• The Union had 11 free states and 11 slave
states.
• Admitting any new state, either slave or free,
would upset the balance of political power in
the Senate.
Missouri Compromise
(1820)
• Missouri applies for
statehood in 1819
• Senate: 11 free states &
11 slave states
The Missouri Compromise
• The Missouri Compromise called for
admitting Maine as a free state and Missouri
as a slave state.
• An amendment was added to the compromise
that prohibited slavery in the Louisiana
Purchase territory north of Missouri’s
southern border.
The Compromise
• Missouri enters Union
as a slave state
• Maine enters Union as a
free state
• A line is drawn at 36/30
• Above it = Free
• Below it = Slave
• Compromise Created by
Henry Clay
The Missouri Compromise
• Why did many leaders believe that the
Missouri Compromise was only a temporary
solution?
• They knew that as soon as other territories
applied for admission to the Union, the issue
of the balance of political power between the
free states and the slave states would
reemerge.
Henry Clay
[KY]
Andrew Jackson
[TN}
John Quincy Adams
[MA]
William H. Crawford
[GA]
1824 Presidential Election
The Election of 1824
• Four candidates ran for president in 1824.
• Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson represented
the West. John Quincy Adams represented
the North and William Crawford had support
of the South.
• Adams favored internal improvements but not
a tariff and Jackson ran on his heroism at the
Battle of New Orleans.
Election of 1824
• Jackson won the popular vote, but no
candidate won a majority in the Electoral
College.
• The election then went to the House of
Representatives to select the president from
the three candidates with the highest number
of electoral votes.
• Clay was eliminated, so he threw his support
to John Quincy Adams.
Election of 1824
• Adams won the House vote.
• Jackson’s nephew accused Clay of winning
votes for Adams in return for the cabinet post
of secretary of state.
• Jackson’s supporters accused Adams and Clay
of a “corrupt bargain.”
• They took the name Democratic-Republicans
to point out their differences with Adams’s
party, the National Republicans.
Results of the 1824 Election
A
“Corrupt
Bargain?”
The Election of 1824
• The Democratic-Republicans later shortened
their name to Democrats.
• What was the “corrupt bargain”?
• Jackson’s nephew accused Clay of winning
votes for Adams in return for the cabinet post
of secretary of state. Jackson’s supporters
accused Adams and Clay of a “corrupt
bargain”.
The Election of 1828
• The candidates were John Quincy Adams and
Andrew Jackson.
• The campaign turned into mudslinging. The
candidates criticized each other’s personalities
and morals.
• Adams claimed Jackson was incompetent.
• Jackson portrayed himself as the candidate of
the common man and said Adams was an outof-touch aristocrat.
The Election of 1828
• Jackson won the election of 1828.
• Many voters who supported him were from
the West and South, rural and small-town
men who thought Jackson would represent
their interests.
1828 Election Results
Voting Requirements in the
Early 19c
Impact of
decreasing
property
ownership
requirements?
More “common
people” can
vote

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