UNIT 3 Industrialism and The Race for Empire

Industrialism and The
Race for Empire
Section 1
• Industrial Revolution transformed how people worked
• Machines replaced animal and human power to produce
• Began in England and spread to the rest of Europe and
the United States by the middle of the 1800’s
Early 1700’s farmers in England improved farming
methods to grow larger amounts of crops
 Farmers began to rotate crops to keep the soil productive
 Livestock breeders improved their methods of breeding
animals and their weight increased
 More food led to better living conditions
 Caused population of England to grow rapidly
Large landowners forced smaller landowners off of
their land and many moved to the cities across England
o Many who moved to cities became factory workers
o Increased population in cities increased demand for food and
manufactured goods
Beginnings of Industrialization
Why the Industrial Revolution began in England
I. Extensive natural resources
• Coal
• Iron ore
• Rivers for transporting goods
II. Expanding economy
• Developed banking system made it easy to borrow money to
improve industry
III. Over seas colonies and trading partners supported by the
most powerful navy in the world
IV. Parliament passed laws to encourage and protect businesses
V. Had all of the factors of production (land, labor, capital or
Beginnings of Industrialization
• Inventions helped fuel industrial expansion
• Textile (cloth) industry was the first to be
• Inventions increased the work that could be done
in one day
• 1733 flying shuttle developed that made weaving
cloth easier
• 1764 Spinning wheel developed that increased
• 1769 Arkwright water frame developed that used
water power to drive these two machines
• Textile manufacturers began to house all parts of
production in factories built near rivers and streams
• Cotton for textile mills came from the American
• 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to speed up
production of separating cotton fiber from seeds
Beginnings of Industrialization
• Steam power was developed by James
Watt as a source of power to run factories
• Steam power was also used propel boats
• 1807 American inventor Robert Fulton’s
steamboat Claremont makes its first
successful voyage
• Faster water transportation cut the cost of
transporting raw materials and finished
• Early 1800’s Robert McAdam improves
the way roads are built
• Private investors build roads and charge
fees to people using them
Beginnings of Industrialization
• 1804 first steam powered rail engine
• 1821 first rail line built in England
• By middle of 1830’s railroads connected many parts of
• Locomotive had four major effects
1) Gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport goods
2) Created thousands of new jobs
3) Boosted agriculture and fishing industries, it made it easier to
transport these products to markets
4) Encouraged people to take distant city jobs
Beginnings of Industrialization
• Industrialization led to an increased standard of living,
people had better clothes, better food and earned higher
wages in factories than on farms.
• Change to machine production caused human suffering
when it first began
• Rapid industrialization caused unhealthy living
conditions, child labor abuse and led to class tension
• After 1800 balance of population in Europe was moving
to cities (urbanization)
• 1800-1850 the number of cities with more than 100,000
people went from 22 to 47
• Most urban areas doubled in size
• Factories and cities developed near coal
and water resources
• Cities had no plans to deal with rapid
• Poor sanitation, no building codes, lack of
education, police and fire protection were
major problems in cities
• Streets were unpaved and trash and animal
waste piled up
• Workers lived in dark, dirty houses
• Sickness was widespread
• The wealthy merchants and middle class
moved out of the cities to the suburbs
• To increase production and profit factory
owners kept machines running as many
hours as possible
• Average worker worked 16 hours per day,
6 days a week
• Work remained the same week after week
• Factories were not well lit or clean and
there was a high rate of accidents
• There were no government programs to
help people injured on the job
• Women and children were the cheapest to
employ and had some of the worst
working conditions
• Growing middle class
• Industrial Revolution created
enormous wealth
• Factory owners, shippers, and
merchants were part of a growing
middle class
• Middle class was made up of skilled
workers, professionals, business
• Took political power from wealthy
landowners and aristocrats
• Looked down on by these groups,
“business” was seen as vulgar
• Middle class enjoyed a comfortable
standard of living
The Working class
• Laborers, factory workers saw little
improvement in their standard of living
and working conditions
• Many saw their jobs disappear as
machines took over for them
• One group that resisted mechanization
was the Luddites
• These groups destroyed factory machines
and organized worker riots because of
poor living and working conditions
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Created jobs for workers
• Demand for engineers and managers increased
Created wealth for the nation
• Created tax revenue that allowed cities and countries to improve
urban areas
Allowed for technological progress and invention
Raised the standard of living, provided hope for improvement
in peoples lives
• Better food
• Better educational opportunities
• Created cheaper mass produced goods
Laborers eventually won better wages and working
conditions after they formed labor unions
Section 3

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