The Beginnings of Industrialization

Report
MONEY, LABOR, and ECONOMY
Objectives
 (sec 1) Explain the origins of the Industrial Revolution.
 (sec 1) Explain the impact of mechanization




(machines).
(sec 2) Describe the social and economic effects of
industrialization.
(sec 3) Explain the impact on land, labor and
corporations.
(sec 4) Explain the reaction to industrial capitalism.
(sec 4) Explain the origins and main concepts of
capitalism, socialism, and communism.
Questions to Consider





What were four factors that contributed to
industrialization in Britain?
How did rising population help the Industrial
Revolution?
What American invention aided the textile industry?
Was the revolution in agriculture necessary for the
Industrial Revolution?
What effect did entrepreneurs have on the Industrial
Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution Begins in
Britain
 Agriculture paves the
way for more food
 More food=more people
(workers)
 Enclosures (fields)
 Crop-rotation (better
soil/yield)


Experimentation in
farming
Smaller farmers were
leaving to cities (workers)
Why the Revolution Began In
England
 Large population
 Natural resources
 Water and coal
power
 Iron ore for
machines
 Rivers/Harbors
Why the Revolution Began In
England
They also had
the Factors of
Production:
Land
Labor
Capital ($$)
Changes in the Textile Industry
 Several inventions were
made to increase textile
(cloth) production
 Flying Shuttle
 Spinning Jenny
 Water Frame
 Spinning Mule
 Power Loom
 http://video.google.com/
videoplay?docid=7833539046121151628#
 A power loom at work…
Changes in the Textile Industry
 In America, things were
changing too
 Eli Whitney invented the
Cotton Gin
 Easier to separate cotton
from boll
 Increased demand for
cotton in US and Britain
 Increased demand for
slave labor in US
Improvements in Transportation
 Steam Engine-James
Watt (with help of
entrepreneur or
investor)
 Steamboat-Robert
Fulton
 Better paved roads-John
Mc Adam
Trains and Boats
Questions to Consider





What were four factors that contributed to
industrialization in Britain?
How did rising population help the Industrial
Revolution?
What American invention aided the textile industry?
Was the revolution in agriculture necessary for the
Industrial Revolution?
What effect did entrepreneurs have on the Industrial
Revolution?
Section 2-Industrialization
Objective:
Describe the social
and economic
effects of
industrialization.
Size of Cities
 Growth of factories,
bringing job seekers
 Urban areas doubling,
tripling, or
quadrupling in size
 Factories developing
near new sources of
energy
 Many new cities
specializing in
certain industries
Living Conditions in Cities
 No sanitary codes or
building controls
 Lack of housing,
education, and
police
 No running water or
indoor plumbing
 Frequent epidemics
sweeping through
slums
Tenement Life
Jacob Riis-Tenement Life
Leisure Time
Lewis Hine
Lewis Hine
Lewis Hine
Working conditions
 IR creating new jobs
 Harsh and severe
 Workers trying to keep
discipline
 Eventually shorter hours,
higher wages and
better conditions
pace w/machines
 Factories dirty and
unsanitary
 Running dangerous
machines long
hours in unsafe
conditions
Emerging social classes
 Growing middle class of
factory owners,
shippers and
merchants
 Upper class of landowners
and aristocrats
resentful of middle
class
 Lower middle class of
factory overseers and
skilled workers
 Overworked and
underpaid
Positive effects of Industrial
Revolution (Eventually)
 More jobs
 Contributed to wealth and




power of nation (who
specifically?)
Healthier diets
Better housing
Cheaper, mass-produced
items
Eventually there were labor
gains made:
 shorter hours
 higher wages
 better working conditions
Section 2-Industrialization
Objective:
Describe the social
and economic
effects of
industrialization.
Section 4-Reforming the Economic
World
Objectives
(sec 4) Explain the origins and
main concepts of capitalism,
socialism, and communism.
(sec 4) Explain the reaction to
industrial capitalism.
Questions to Consider
 What were Adam Smith’s three natural laws of




economics?
What kind of society did early socialists want?
What were Karl Marx’s key ideas?
Why did workers join together to form unions?
Why did the labor reform movement spread to other
areas of life?
Effects of Industrialization
 As industry grew, so did
wealth.
 Philosophers started
looking at how wealth
and labor affected
society.
 Some believed
government should have
a role in business, others
did not.
Capitalism
 Laissez faire (let do)
“The Invisible Hand”
that guides the market.
 privately owned
industry and businesses
would set standards for
working conditions
 favors free market
economy unregulated
by government
Capitalism
 Economy is based on





supply and demand
High supply=low prices
Low supply=high prices
High demand=high
prices
Low demand=low prices
Government would
screw this up (ability to
make $$$)
Capitalism
 -Adam Smith-1776 book
“The Wealth of Nations"
detailed that economic
liberty guaranteed
economic progress for
everyone
 Three laws:
 Law of self interest
(people act in their own
interest)
 Law of competition
(forces people to make a
better product)
 Law of supply and
demand (enough goods
would be produced to
meet society’s demands)
Socialism (roots)
 Other philosophers felt
that government should
intervene in business
 They saw the low wages
of the lower class, the
poor living and working
conditions, and uncaring
business owners as a
problem for society.
Socialism (Utilitarianism)
 An early form of socialism
was Utilitarianism.
 Jeremy Bentham’s idea was
that people should judge
institutions, ideas, and
actions based on their
usefulness.
 Government should
promote programs that
would benefit the greatest
amount of people.
Bentham’s Head
Socialism (Utilitarianism)
 John Stuart Mill
 Felt that it was wrong
that workers lived hard
lives
 Wanted to create
policies that would lead
to more equal division
of profits
 Wanted to reform
women’s rights, voting
rights, and prison
reform
Socialism
 Took Utilitarianism one
step further
 Charles Fourier and
Saint-Simon wanted to
offset the negative
aspects of
industrialization
 They created philosophy
of socialism
Socialism
 Socialism is when the
factors of production
(Land, Labor, and
Capital) are controlled
by the public
(government) and
industry is run and
controlled for the benefit
of all people in the
society.
 Government control of
factories, railroads, raw
materials, and other key
industries would end
poverty and poor
working conditions
brought on by the quest
for profit (by private
owners of industry).
What is Socialism?
Marxism (Radical Socialism)
 AKA=
Communism
 Outlined in Karl
Marx and
Friederich Engels’
pamphlet The
Communist
Manifesto
Marxism (Radical Socialism)
 Society has always been
divided into warring
classes:
 The “Haves” or
bourgeoisie (wealthy)
 And
 The “Have-nots” or
proletariat (working
class)
Marxism (Radical Socialism)
 The wealthy controlled
means (L, L, C) of
producing goods
 The poor did the backbreaking labor of actually
producing the goods (in
terrible conditions).
 The Industrial Revolution
made the rich richer and
the poor poorer.
 “The proletarians have
nothing to lose but their
chains. They have a world
to win. Working men of all
countries, unite.”

From the Communist
Manifesto
Marxism (Radical Socialism)
 World View:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Large industries would crush smaller artisans and
control all of the wealth
Large proletariat would revolt and seize control of
industry and produce what was needed for society
Workers would share profits and bring economic
equality for all people
Workers would control government/economy in a
“dictatorship of the proletariat.”
A classless society would develop over time
Marxism (Radical Socialism)
 This was pure
communism, or radical
socialism
 All means of productions
are controlled by people
 Private property would
cease to exist
 All goods and services
would be shared equally
Marxism (Radical Socialism)
 Marx and Engels felt that
economics alone
controlled society
 History has shown that
religion, nationalism,
ethnic loyalties and a
desire for democratic
reforms may be as strong
of influences as economics
are
 Also, the gap between the
rich and poor closed over
time
Democratic Reforms
 Faced with tough working
conditions, workers
formed unions
 These were organizations
that bargained for better
working conditions, wages,
benefits, etc.
 If the owners of industry
would not negotiate, the
workers would stop
working (strike)
Democratic Reforms
 Factory Act of 1833>
 Illegal to hire children
under 9 years old.
 9-12 year olds could only
work 8 hours a day
 13-17 year olds could only
work 12 hours
 Women and children
couldn’t work
underground (mines)
 This spirit spread to
other areas:
 Slavery
 Women’s rights
 Education
 Prisons
Questions to Consider
 What were Adam Smith’s three natural laws of




economics?
What kind of society did early socialists want?
What were Karl Marx’s key ideas?
Why did workers join together to form unions?
Why did the labor reform movement spread to other
areas of life?

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