113 chapter 21 section 1 A New Kind of Revolution

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A New Kind of Revolution
CHAPTER 21
SECTION 1
Key Terms
 Industrial Revolution
 Jethro Tull
 Enclosure movement
 Richard Arkwright
 Factors of production
 James Watt
 Cottage industry
 Robert Fulton
 Factory
 Industrialization
A Revolution in Great Britain
 Humans and animals
were main energy source
 People began to develop
water and steam power
 Industrial Revolution-the
era when the use of
power driven machines
was developed
Factors for Success
 Exploration and
colonization-provided
raw materials such as
cotton and fiber

Colonies became new
markets
 Sea power brings in raw
material and send out
manufactured goods
because of strong navy
Factors of Success
 Political stability-1700’s
at home the country was
a peace, commerce
thrived
 Government supportParliament passed laws
that favored business
 Growth of private
investment-private
funding for research and
development
Agricultural Factors
 Most of research took
place on farms
 Jethro Tull-1701
invented the seed drill

made planting grain more
efficient
 Improved livestock
breeding
 Potatoes were developed
Agricultural Factors
 Increased food supply
 Population grew
 Wealthy landowners
combined fields to create
large farms
 Enclosure developmentthe fencing in of large
farms
 Threw countless farmers
of their fields
 Moved to the city for jobs
Britain’s Big Advantage
 Factors of productions-
land, labor and capitol
 Land- means all of
place’s natural resources




Coal to burn as fuel
Iron to make steel
Water was the most
important
Streams and rivers turned
waterwheels and
generated power
Britain’s Big Advantage
 Waterways provided
transportation between
mines, factories and
markets
 Mid 1700’s had 1000
miles of canals
 Grew to 4,000 by 1800
 Deep water ports for long
distance shipping
Britain’s Big Advantage
 Labor- had a growing
population
 Thousands lost their
farmland
 Entire families would go
to work in an industry
 Capitol-funds investment
for business



People with money to
spend
People with skills
inventors
A Revolution in Textiles
 Began with textile
industry
 Cottage industry- a craft
occupation performed at
home
 Industrialization-the
process of changing to
power driven machinery
A New Way to Make Cloth
 Most fabric made of wool




or cotton
Wool increased because
of enclosure movement
Shipments of cotton
came from the colonies
Slave labor made cotton
farming more profitable
Great Britain bought
more American cotton
A New Way of Making Cloth
 Pulling seed from cotton
by hand was time
consuming
 Eli Whitney invented the
cotton gin (machine)
 Fiber was then spun into
yarn
 James Hargreaves
invented the spinning
jenny
A New Way of Making Cloth
 James Arkwright- made
a machine that spun
stronger, thinner thread
 Thread woven into fabric
 Use to be done a t home
 Power Loom-larger
faster weaving system
Cloth-making in Factories
 New weavers too big for




the home
Factory- a building that
houses industrial
machines
Needed supplies of
power
Arkwright built the water
frame spinning system
Went from 50,000 bolts
of cloth to 400,000 in
thirty years
Steam Powers the Revolution
 1712 first steam engine
 1800 - 500 of James
Watts machines
 Put to use in textile
industry
 Factories did not have to
be built near water
 Located where there was
fuel and workers
Steam Powers the Revolution
 Steam used for




transportation
Richard Trevithick- used
steam power for a
locomotive
Robert Fulton used it for
a steamship
1807 Clermont operated
on the Hudson River
Steamships replace
sailing ships
Coal for British Steam Engines
 Steam engines require a




lot of fuel
Wood was scarce
Had a large supply of
coal
Coal mining grew as
steam power grew
1800 Great Britain
produced 80% of
Europe's coal
Coal for British Steam Engines
 Factories built near coal
mines
 Towns grew as factories
and homes were built
 Miners families
experienced tragedies





Explosions
Coal dust
Collapsing shafts
Hard labor
Children slid down narrow
shafts to pick coal
Industrialization Spreads
 Western Europe,
Americas
 Asia and Africa did not
industrialize in the
1800’s
Industry and the West
 Western countries




individual freedom a
significant force
People enjoyed political
liberty
People could compete
Western societies
competition as good
Wealth and fame was the
reward
Industry and the West
 Westerners exploited
other countries to
compete
 Competed to improve
inventions or processes
Industry Comes to America
 Britain outlawed the
export of certain
machines
 Forbid skilled craftsman
from leaving the country
 1760- 1830 Industrial
Revolution mainly in
Great Britain
Industry comes to the America
 United States one of the
first places to benefit
from Industrialization
 1791 Alexander
Hamilton (Secretary of
the Treasury)

Industrialization would
help the United States
gain economic
independence
 Wanted government to
bribe British citizens to
brink knowledge to U.S.
Industry Comes to America
 Samuel Slater came from
Britain
 Built a model of the
water frame in Rhode
Island
 1793 built Slater’s Mill In
Pawtucket Rhode island
 Became the father of
American industry
Industry Comes to America
 Textile mill technology
spreads
 Lowell Massachusetts
becomes the jewel of
American Industry
 Lowell’s mills were forty
multistory buildings on a
network of 6 miles of
canals
Industry Comes to America
 Lowell first all in one mill
 Took raw cotton to fiber
to finished cloth
 Hired young single girls
 Provided good wages and
clean housing
 10,000 workers
employed by 1850
Industry Spreads to Europe
 1807 William Cockerill
founded a textile factory
in Belgium
 Political unrest delayed
industrialization of
France
 1848 France becomes an
industrial power
 Treaties helped drop
trade barriers
Industry in Asia
 Although today Japan is
one of the more
industrialized nations
 Took until 1868 for
Industrial Revolution to
take hold
 Meiji government came
to power modernized the
country
 Japan was ahead of its
Asian neighbors

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