Chapter 10: Antebellum Society 1800-1860 SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and reconstruction on Georgia. a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states' rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens. • b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia's coast, Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea, and Andersonville. • c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen's Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan. Economics • SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. • SS8E2 The student will explain the benefits of free trade. a. Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time periods. Cotton is King!! • Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin. • Before the cotton gin, a worker could clean the seeds of one pound of cotton a day. With the cotton gin, 50 pounds of cotton could be deseeded per day. • Increased cotton production requires an increased labor force (slaves) • The importation of slaves into the US is banned in 1808. Slavery Expands • Slaves are traded across state lines to meet the demand in the south. • In 1820, the south sold 22 million dollars of cotton. By the late 1830’s that number had risen to over 200 million. • In 1790 a male field hand sold for about $300.00; in 1830 that price had risen to roughly $1,000.00. Difficulties with Farming • Most farmers did not use the mechanical farming tools available at the time. The hoe and one-mule cottonseed planter were the primary farming implements. • Soil exhaustion from over planting. • Crop Failures=Farm Failures Industry in Georgia • • • • Textile mills Timber Saw Mills; Flour and Grist Mills Because of the wealth accrued from growing cotton, very little money was invested in industry. This will be a major issue in the war. Transportation • Rivers and steamboats • Railroads: 1837 Western and Atlantic Railroad (W&A). The first stake of the rail line was driven into ground about 7 miles east of the Chattahoochee River. This point was called Terminus. This is now Atlanta. • By 1860, all but two of the major railroads passed through Atlanta, making this the “Gate City”. Education • Wealthy families sent their children to private academies or had private tutors that came to their homes. • Poor School System: Public education for the needy (poor) and mainly boys. Many people were ashamed to send their children to the poor schools. Elementary Education Private Academies Poor School Systems Old Field Schools Children of wealthy families Children of needy (poor) families Children of families who could pay tuition. State-funded for poor whites Tuition paid for by families. Limited to basic education and was seasonal. Planters: paid for by the families Higher Education • First University: Franklin College was chartered in 1785. Males Only until 1903. • Now called the University of Georgia (UGA) • The first president of UGA was Abraham Baldwin and John Milledge donated 622 acres for the college. • Named after Benjamin Franklin • First female college created in 1839 by the Methodist Church was Wesleyan Female College. Religion, Reform, and Cities • The South is swept up in a religious awakening. Camp Meetings are common in both the white and slave communities. • Institutions were created to provide for the mentally ill, criminals, those physically challenged as well as the blind and deaf. Milledgeville is home to the “insane” asylum. • Savannah: 22,000 people; Augusta: 12,500; Columbus, Macon, and Atlanta: 10,000. Society in Antebellum Georgia • Southern society was class driven. The poorest whites were higher in the hierarchy than even freed slaves. • Only about ¼ of the south’s white population owned slaves. • Owning slaves was a sign of wealth and political power. • Most slave owners owned 1-10 slaves. Planters • Planters owned more than 20 slaves. • Their farms were referred to as plantations and covered hundreds of acres. • In 1860, fewer than 3,000 of Georgia’s 600,000 white citizens could be called planters. • Their homes were usually modest and not as elaborate as what you see in the movies or on television. • Plantations were small communities and fairly self-sufficient. Planters (more) • Plantations were supervised by an OVERSEER, a person that was in charge of running the day-to-day operations of the plantation. • Planters frequently lived in town for the social and educational advantages that cities offered, and to avoid the diseases from insects. • Planters were usually well educated and involved in politics. Their children were sent to private academies and colleges with the expectation that they would grow up to be community leaders. Yeoman Farmers • Most whites were yeoman farmers. • They owned a few acres of land and grew their own crops. • Some owned slaves. • They lived in communities called settlements. • They hunted and fished and grew crops. They were fairly self-sufficient within the settlement with churches and other stores. Poor Whites and Freed Slaves • Poor whites did not own any land and often hired themselves out for labor. They lived at the subsistence level barely getting by in terms of food, clothing, and shelter. Most eventually wound up working in the cities. • In 1860 there were about 3500 freed slaves. Most lived in the city and were required to carry papers showing proof of freedom. Some were kidnapped and sold back into slavery. Enslaved Africans • Slaves were viewed as property. • Their was a hierarchy in the slave community. • Slaves were not generally allowed to learn to read and write. • Slaves could not legally marry. • Some were allowed to grow their own gardens and were given rations for clothing. • The children of slaves were also slaves. Slave Hierarchy • House Slaves Top • These slaves were at the top of the hierarchy. They worked inside the home cooking, cleaning, and tending the planter’s children. They often dressed better, ate better, and were allowed to bring their own children into the house. They generally had their own quarters in or near the house. • Skilled Workers Middle • Theses slaves fell into the middle of the slave hierarchy. They worked as blacksmiths and carpenters. They could be hired out to other farms or plantations and would sometimes be allowed to keep a portion of the money they earned at these jobs. • Field Hands or Slaves Bottom • These slaves were at the bottom of the slave hierarchy. They plowed, hoed, and harvested the crops. They worked from sun-up to sun-down. They were allowed to tend their own gardens after work. In Conclusion • The cotton boom changed the economy of the south. But slavery affected all of the people who lived there. The states enacted harsh slave codes to deter slave revolts and runaways. The issue of slavery is not going away.