Chapter 11 - Southern Local Schools

Report
Chapter 11
National and Regional Growth
Essential Question?
•What forces and events
affected national unity and
growth?
•What is the Industrial
Revolution?
The American Revolution
• After the war of 1812- America experienced a
new revolution.
• Industrial Revolution
▫ 1. Factory Machines
▫ 2. Large scale manufacturing producing huge
quantities of goods.
Factories Rise in New England
• 1793: Samuel Slater: builder of the first water
powered textile mill in America.
• It was illegal for British textile workers to leave
the country – Fear of copying these ideas.
• Slater brought the secrets to America.
• New England was a good place to build factories
because of the fast moving rivers, and access to
the ocean.
• Factory System: brought many workers and
machines together under one roof.
• Because of the British Naval blockade from the
war of 1812, America needed to manufacture
their own goods.
• Lowell Mills hire women – U.S. textile industry
– 1814- Ran on water power.
New Manufacturing Methods Spread
• Eli Whitney – made gains for the U.S.
Government first by using interchangeable
parts: instead of making one at a time.
▫ 1. sped up production
▫ 2. Easy Repairs
▫ 3. Use of less skilled workers.
New Inventions Improve Life
• Transportation and Communication
• Robert Fulton: an inventor that developed a
steamboat that could move against the current
or a strong wind.
• Clermont : nicknamed “Fulton’s Folly” because it looked
silly but it made the 300 mile round trip from New York
to New Albany and back in a record 62 hours.
• Peter Cooper- built 1st American successful
steam powered locomotive called the Tom
Thumb.
• Samuel F.B. Morse- 1st telegraph – This machine
sent electric long and short pulses that could be
translated into letters spelling out messages.
Technology Improves Farming
• 1837- John Deere- invented a lightweight plowsteel cutting edge
• Threshing machine (Andrew Meikles)
• Mechanical Reaper (Cyrus McCormick)
• These inventions improved agricultural
production by making farm work quicker and
more efficient.
Section 2
Plantations and Slavery Spread
• Cotton Gin- Machine made for cleaning cotton
much faster. Inventor was Eli Whitney. The
cotton gin helped the South on a very different
course of economic development than the North.
(1pd by hand .. 50 by gin)
The Cotton Boom
• Industrial Revolution – Increased number of
goods being produced. Increased demand for
raw materials.
• Slavery Expands
• (1790- 1860)
• Cotton production increases along with slavery.
The demand for slavery grew.
• 1808- illegal to import slaves
• 1810-1840 the birth rate of enslaved slaves more
than doubles.
Southern Support for Slavery
• Slavery divided white southerners into two
groups.
▫ Ones who had slaves
▫ Ones who did not
1/3 of white families had slaves
1/10 had large plantations with 20 or more slaves
All hoped one day to have enough money to afford
slaves.
African Americans in the South
•
•
•
•
1804- 1/3 population was enslaved people
Slaves lived with cruel conditions.
Slavery Video
Not all worked on Plantations – servants,
craftspeople, factory hands, day laborers.
• Slaves were considered property
• 1840- 5% of African Americans were free
• 1. born free 2. bought freedom 3. freed by
owner
Problems of Free Slaves
•
•
•
•
Most states made them leave once free
No voting or education
They were refused jobs by employers
They feared being caught and sold back into
slavery
Families Under Slavery
• Cruelest part was the selling of family members
• Fredrick Douglass- resisted slavery – escaped to
the North
• Slave Rebellions
▫ Nat Turner – Famous Rebellion (Virginia) Killing
of white men, women, and children. Turner was
captured when ammunition ran out.
Turner’s rebellion led many in the south to spread
fear. Southerners killed many to avenge.
•Nat Turner’s Rebellion
A Common Culture
• The common culture helped enslaves people
bond together and endure the brutal conditions.
• Religion was the cornerstone of African
American Culture
• Spirituals- Folk songs that were often religious
in nature
• Some spirituals had coded messages about
escaping or unexpected return of owner
• African American Spirituals had a strong
influence on blues, jazz, and other forms of
American music.
• Follow the Drinking Gourd
• Swing Low Sweet Chariot
• Wade in the Water
Section 3
Nationalism and Sectionalism
• War of 1812 increased : Nationalism- feeling of
pride, loyalty, and protectiveness towards your
nation.
• Henry Clay – He was a strong nationalist
▫ 1. he wanted to strengthen country
▫ 2. Unify its regions
Nationalism Unites the Country
• Madison wanted to be successful without foreign
products
• The American System-( A plan by Henry Clay)
▫ Had 3 main actions
▫ 1. Protective Tariff- a tax on imported goods
that protect a nation’s businesses from foreign
competition.
▫ 2. National Bank (need a single currency)
▫ 3. Improve the nation’s transportation systems.
The Era of Good Feeling
• Democratic –Republican party candidate –
James Monroe (Won Presidency of 1816)
• Federalist Party will disappear after the election
• Political Difference end called (Era of Good
Feelings)
Several Landmarks
• 1. promoted national unity by strengthening the
national government
• 2. State could not tax a national bank
• 3. Interstate commerce could by regulated by
federal government (not state government’s)
• In 1806, Congress funded a road from
Transportation
Links
Cities West
Cumberland, Maryland
to Wheeling
Virginia. It was called a national road.
• Water transportation improved of building
canals. (1790- 1855) (Age of Canals)
• Erie Canal: created a water route New York City
to Buffalo, NY.
• Into Great Lakes Region
• RR improvements led to decline in canal use.
• 1830- 23 miles of rails (1850- 9000 miles of
rails)
Sectional Tensions Increase
• Sectionalism threatened to tear the nation apart.
• Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of a
region or section of a country
• South: relied on plantation economy (Slaves)
• North East: Focused on manufacturing and
trade.
• West – settlers wanted cheap land (mostly in
conflict)
• Sectionalism was a big problem in Missouri.
Applied for statehood in 1817
• Missouri wanted to be added as a slave state.
• At the time, there were 11 slave states and 11 free
states
• Adding Missouri as a slave state would upset
balance of power in Congress.
The Missouri Compromise
• Southern states feared the un-shift in balance
and that Congress would ban slavery altogether.
• The Senate passed a plan called Missouri
Compromise
• Missouri Compromise: laws enacted in 1820 to
maintain balance of power between slave and
free states. It called for slavery to be banned
north of the parallel 36 degrees 30 of Missouri’s
southern border.
• Mason Dixon Line- Formed between
Pennsylvania and Maryland was a divide
between free and slave states.
Natural Boundaries and Foreign Affairs
• Wanted defined boundaries had to deal with
Spain and Great Britain.
• Great Britain
▫ 1. Convention of 1818: set U.S. Canadian Border
▫ 2. 49th Parallel as far west as the Rocky
Mountains.
Relations with Spain were tense
The two nations disagreed on boundaries of
Louisiana Purchase and ownership of west Florida
- Pirates and Run away slaves used East Florida as a
refuge.
• General Andrew Jackson followed Seminoles
into Spanish Territory and captured two cities
▫ 1. Pensacola
▫ 2. Saint Marks
Monroe ordered Jackson to withdraw but gave
Spain a choice
1. Police the Florida’s
2. Turn over Florida to the U.S.
• Adams – Onis Treaty of 1819- Spain handed over
Florida and gave up claims of Oregon Country.
Monroe Document
• Closed to further colonization
• Warned that European efforts to reestablish
colonies would be dangerous to our peace and
safety.
• U.S. Policy opposing European interference in
the Western Hemisphere.
• U.S. would stay out of European Affairs
• U.S. seen as a world power and protector of
Latin America.
•Monroe Document

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