Fragments and Run-ons Fragments • Fragments are incomplete thoughts that have been punctuated like a sentence. • Fragments can be phrases, dependent clauses, or any incomplete word group. • Fragments are usually missing a subject or a predicate OR they are dependent clauses treated as independent clauses. • EXAMPLES: • Ann walked all alone. To the store. • Walking to the store. She saw a car accident. • Because she exercises regularly. She is in good condition. Identifying Fragments 1. If your parents think today’s fashions are weird. 2. They should see the clothes people wore in the Middle Ages. 3. Might wear a short-sleeved tunic over a long-sleeved tunic, with a sleeveless mantle over all. 4. Current fashions a little boring in comparison. 5. When clothes were edged and lined in fur. Run-ons Run-on sentences occur when independent clauses are not joined properly. There are two types of run-on sentence: the fused sentence and the comma splice. • Fused sentences occur when there is no punctuation and no coordinating conjunction between two independent clauses. • EXAMPLE: The snow needs to be shovelled get going on it right away. • Comma splices occur when two independent clauses are joined with a comma that is not followed by a FANBOYS. • EXAMPLE: The snow needs to be shovelled, get going on it right away. Identifying Run-ons 1. Brown bears include the grizzly and the kodiak, the largest brown bear is the kodiak. 2. Bears can live more than 30 years in the wild. 3. Females give birth to as many as four cubs, the cubs stay with their mothers two or three years. 4. Many people are afraid of bears, encounters with bears are actually infrequent. 5. Generally, bears attack only when they are surprised, or when they are protecting their young. Fixing Fragments There are many ways to fix fragments. The three most common are: • Connect the fragment to a complete sentence. • EXAMPLE: Because she exercises regularly, she is in excellent condition. • Remove the words that make the fragment a dependent clause. • EXAMPLE: Because She exercises regularly. She is in excellent condition. • Add words to make the fragment a complete sentence. • EXAMPLE: She feels great because she exercises regularly. She is in excellent condition. Fixing Run-ons Run-on sentences can be revised in one of four ways: *Use a comma and a FANBOYS to join the independent clauses. EXAMPLE: The snow needs to be shovelled, so get going on it right away. *Use a semicolon to join the dependent clauses (use sparingly). EXAMPLE: The snow needs to be shovelled; get going on it right away. *Turn each independent clause into a separate sentence. The snow needs to be shovelled. Get going on it right away. *Turn one of the independent clauses into a dependent clause. EXAMPLE: Since the snow needs to be shovelled, get going on it right away. Fix these. 1. Screamed loudly! 2. When I got off the school bus. 3. I like learning Spanish it makes me tired 4. I love language arts my teacher is nice 5. I got up and had breakfast and went to school and came home.