Gross National Happiness: Its relevance and indicators

Report
Gross National Happiness:
Its relevance for Bhutan
and its indicators
Thimphu City Corporation
15th Feb 2011
Bologna, Italy
Salient features of Bhutan
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Location: between China and India
Population : 6,35,000 (2005)
Area: 39,000 Sq. km
Free Health care
Free education till graduation
Absence of caste
stratification
Presentation Outline
• Definition of GNH
• Origin of GNH as a concept
• Four pillars of GNH
• Nine Domains of GNH
• The Indicators
“Every man wants to be
happy but in order to be
so one must know what
happiness is”
GNH: What is it?
• A development model
• Considering all aspects of
development
• Understanding that Happiness
is the innermost desire of
every human being
Origin of GNH
• The 4th King of Bhutan (1974)
• He was then 17 years old and
• The youngest Monarch in the
word
Four Pillars of GNH
• Sustainable and equitable
socioeconomic development
• Environment Conservation
• Preservation and Promotion of
Culture
• Good governance
Economic Development
• GNH does not reject the conventional
economic development model
• Considers social and equitable
development
• Bottom - up approach in
development
Environment Conservation
• Forest cover is about 72%
• 29 % is protected areas (Parks and Biological
Corridors etc)
• 60 % forest cover to be maintained for all times to
come (Constitution)
• Emphasis on hydropower
• Export of ban on
timber
Culture and tradition
• Preservation of traditional societal
norms
• Strong extended family system
• Institutions have been established to
promote
• both performing and non-performing
arts
Good Governance
• Gradual democratic process was
introduce
• In 2008 government was elected by the
People
• Local Government Act passed for
further decentralization
• Check and balance system
• Extensive fight on corruption (ACC)
Nine Domains of GNH
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Psychological Well-being
Time Use
Community Vitality
Culture
Health
Education
Environmental Diversity
Living Standard
Governance
Indicators
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General psychological distress indicator
Emotional balance indicators
Spirituality indicators
Family vitality indicator
Safety indicator
Trust indicator
Social support indicator
Socialization indicator
Indicators (Contd’)
• Dialect use indicator
• Traditional sports indicator
• Community festival indicator
• Artisan skill indicator
• Value transmission indicator
• Basic precept indicator
Indicators (Contd’)
• Health status indicator
• Health knowledge indicator
• Barrier to health indicator
• Education attainment indicator
• Ecological degradation indicator
• Ecological knowledge indicator
Indicators (Contd’)
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Income indicator
Housing indicator
Food security indicator
Hardship indicator
Government performance indicator
Freedom indicator
Institutional trust indicator
Way forward
• Operationalizing the GNH
• Debate among the scholars around
the world
• International seminars are being held
• Some even propose
“Operationalizing GNH as the eight
MDG”

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