Chap03 - AP US Government & Politics

Report
Alan Brinkley,
American History 14/e
Chapter 3
Society and Culture in Provincial America
The Colonial Population
America in 1700
Growth and Diversity
1.
1700–1750—colonial population rose from 250,000 to over two
million
1.
Much growth through natural increase. Exceptional longevity in
New England
2.
Large influx of non-English Europeans
Scots-Irish Flee English Oppression
1.
Largest non-English group
2.
The Scots fled England for Ireland, then the Scots-Irish came to
North America
3.
Concentrated on the Pennsylvania frontier
Germans Search for a Better Life
1.
First waves similar to Quakers and sought religious toleration
2.
Later waves sought to improve their material condition
3.
Admired as peaceful, hard-working farmers
4.
Tried to preserve German language and customs
5.
Aroused the prejudice of English neighbors
6.
Scots-Irish and Germans spread into Shenandoah Valley
Convict Settlers
1.
Transportation Act of 1718 allowed judges to send convicted
felons to American colonies
2.
50,000 convicts to America, 1718–1775
 Some felons were dangerous criminals
 Most had committed minor crimes against property
 Life difficult for transported convicts
Immigration Groups - 1775
America was already a nation of diverse
nationalities in the colonial period. This
map shows the great variety of immigrant
groups, especially in Pennsylvania and New
York. It also illustrates the tendency
of later arrivals, particularly the Scots-Irish, to
push into the backcountry.
Map 5-1 p79
The Colonial Population
1.
2.
From 250,000 in 1700
To 2.8 millions by 1780
The Non-Indian Population of North America,
1700-1780
The Spanish Borderlands, ca. 1770
The Colonial Population
1.
Indentured Servitude
 Origins
 Realities of Indentured Servitude
Indenture Contract of Sarah Green
(click to read)
Economic Transformation
1.
2.
3.
4.
Long-term period of economic and population growth
Colonial manufacture or trade of timber, sugar, hats, and iron
restricted
More diverse economy in the North (factory & manufacturing,
shipping & trade)
Trade was mainly with England and West Indies; little with
Africa
Distinct Economic Identities – 18th
Century
1.
2.
3.
The northern colonies:
 grew grain and raised cattle
 harvested timber and fish
 built ships.
The Chesapeake colonies and North
Carolina:
 heavily dependent on tobacco
Southernmost colonies grew:
 mostly rice and indigo.
Cotton, so important to the southern economy in the
nineteenth century, had not yet emerged as a major
crop.
The Rise of Colonial Commerce
Triangular Trade
Birth of a Consumer Society
1.
English mass-production of consumer goods stimulated
rise in colonial imports (see Family Life 1680-1720)
2.
Americans built up large debts to English merchants to
finance increased imports
3.
Trade between colonies increased
• Intercostal trade
4.
Eroded regional and local identities
The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture
1.
Rapid change in eighteenth-century colonies
2.
Growth of urban cosmopolitan culture
3.
Aggressive participation in consumption
Patterns of Society
Wealth Distribution in Colonial Cities, 1687-1771
The Colonial Economies
1.
The Southern Economy
• Tobacco
• Rice
• Indigo
Selling tobacco
(American Heritage)
20
Southern Plantation Economy
The Southern Colonies
Charleston, South Carolina Founded in 1680, Charleston grew to become the
bustling seaport pictured in this drawing done in the 1730s. Charleston was by then the
largest city in the mostly rural southern colonies. It flourished as a seaport for the
shipment to England of slave-grown Carolina rice.
The Southern Transformation
1.
2.
First slave ship arrived in North America, 1619 (Jamestown)
The Beginnings of Slavery in British America
• The Middle Passage
• Growing Slave Population
• Slave Codes (see Virginia Slave Codes)
Virginia Slave Code (17th – 18th Century)
1662 - ACT XII
WHEREAS some doubts have arrisen whether children get by any
Englishman upon a negro woman should be slave or ffree, Be it therefore
enacted and declared by this present grand assembly, that all children
borne in this country shalbe held bond or free only according to the
condition of the mother…
SOURCE: William Waller Hening, Laws of Virginia, 1619-1792 (1823), I-III.
Virginia Slave Code (17th – 18th Century)
1680 - ACT X
…it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the
publication of this law, it shall not be lawfull for any negrow or other slave to
carry or arme himselfe with any club, staffe, gunn, sword or any other weapon
of defence or offence, nor to goe or depart from of his masters ground without
a certificate from his master, mistris or overseer, and such permission not to be
granted but upon perticuler and necessary occasions; and every negroe or slave
soe offending not haveing a certificate as aforesaid shalbe sent to the next
constable, who is hereby enjoyned and required to give the said negroe twenty
lashes on his bare back well layd on, and soe sent home to his said master,
mistris, or overseer. And it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid that if
any negroe or other slave shall presume to lift up his hand in opposition against
any christian, shall for every such offence, upon due proffe made thereof by the
oath of the party before a magistrate, have and receive thirty lashes on his bare
back well laid on . . . .
Virginia Slave Code (17th – 18th Century)
1705
. . . XXXIV. And if any slave resist his master, or owner, or other person, by his
or her order, correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such
correction, it shall not be accounted felony, but the master, owner, and every
such other person so giving correction, shall be free and acquit of all
punishment and accusation for the same, as if such accident had never
happened: And also, if any negro, mulatto, or Indian, bond or free, shall at any
time, lift his or her hand, in opposition against any Christian, not being negro,
mulatto, or Indian, he or she so offending, shall, for every such offence, proved
by the oath of the party, receive on his or her bare back, thirty lashes, well laid
on..
XXXVI. And also it is hereby enacted and declared, That baptism of slaves doth
not exempt them from bondage; and that all children shall be bond or free,
according to the condition of their mothers, and the particular directions of this
act . . .
Main Sources and Destinations of African Slaves, ca. 1500–1860
The African Population
The African Population of
the British Colonies, 16201780
African Population as
a Proportion of Total
Population, c. 1775
The Middle Passage
The Middle Passage
The “middle passage” referred to the transatlantic
sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World—
the long and hazardous “middle” segment of a
journey that began with a forced march to the African
coast and ended with a trek into the American interior.
p81
From Whose Point of View?
Human Bondage
1.
2.
3.
What is the purpose of treating slaves with inhumanity and
violence?
For what reasons did whites feel justified in their treatment
of Africans?
Virginia Legislature (1667): “the conferring of baptism does
not alter the condition of the person to his bondage or
freedom.” Did a deep-rooted color prejudice lead to
slavery, or did the existence of slavery produce the
prejudice?
America’s First Population Explosion
The African Population of
the British Colonies, 16201780
America’s First Population Explosion
The Slave Trade
600,000 slaves
transported to
British North
America during the
several centuries
of the slave trade.
Rice and Rebellion
Rice and Rebellion
Mulberry Plantation in South Carolina, 1770
Stono Rebellion, 1739
1.
2.
100 Africans rose up, killed 20+ whites and attempted to flee to
Florida, quickly crushed by whites. Other slaves tried to run
away.
Largest slave uprising in colonial America prior to the
Revolution.
Stono Rebellion, 1739
1.
In response to the rebellion, the South Carolina legislature
passed the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly,
education, and movement. It also enacted a 10-year
moratorium against importing African slaves, and established
penalties against slaveholders' harsh treatment of slaves.
Plantation Slavery and its Culture
The Emergence of an African American Culture In this scene from the mid-nineteenth century, African
Americans play musical instruments of European derivation, like the fiddle, as well as instruments of
African origin, like the bones and banjo—a vivid illustration of the blending of the two cultures in the
crucible of the New World.
Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the 17th Century
1.
New Englanders replicated traditional English social order
2.
Contrasted with experience in other English colonies
3.
Explanation lies in development of Puritan families
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Puritan Community
New England
towns were
collections of
interrelated
households
New England Life – Religion
Roman Catholic Church
New England Life – Religion
A Colonial Primer Religious - instruction loomed large in early colonial schools. This 18th century
textbook from Germantown, Pennsylvania, taught lessons of social duty and Christian faith, as well as
reading and writing.
Immigrant Families and New Social Order
1.
Puritans believed God ordained the family
2.
Reproduced patriarchal English family structure in New England
3.
Most New Englanders married neighbors with similar values
Women’s Lives in Puritan New England
1.
Women’s roles
 Farm labor, although not necessarily same tasks as men
 Often outnumbered men 2:1 in church membership
2.
3.
4.
Women could not control property
Divorce difficult for a woman to obtain
Both genders accommodated themselves to roles they believed
God ordained
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
New England’s Freehold Society

Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy
• Husband the Head of the Household
• Wife as the “Helpmate”
• Motherhood
• Restrictions

Farm Property: Inheritance
• Family Authority
• Children of Wealthy Parents
• Marriage
• Father’s Duty
New England’s Communities
Puritan New England

Puritanism and Witchcraft


Supernatural Forces
Salem Witchcraft 1692 (view)
18th Century Philadelphia
Provincial Cities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Only about 5% of population
Five largest cities: Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia,
and Charles Town
Economies were geared to commerce, not manufacturing
Inhabitants emulated English culture, fashion, and architecture
Cities were becoming more elegant
High white literacy rates
Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827). The Peale Family.
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). Gordon Family
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). Gordon Family
John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). The Copley Family
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). The Hartley Family.
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). The Archibald Bulloch Family.
Charles Willson Peale (1827). Robert Goldsborough & Family.
Edward Savage (1761-1817). The George Washington Family.
American Enlightenment
1.
Intellectual movement that swept Europe with new, radical
ideas
• Age of Reason
2.
The Enlightenment’s basic assumptions:
• Optimistic view of human nature
• God set up the universe and human society to operate by mechanistic,
natural laws
• Those laws can be found through reason
Benjamin Franklin
1.
Franklin (1706–1790) regarded as Enlightenment thinker by Europeans
2.
4.
Started as printer, then satirist in Boston. Moved to Philadelphia
Achieved wealth through printing business
Made important scientific discoveries and inventions
5.
Symbol of material progress through human ingenuity
3.
Table 5-3 p90
Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies
1.
2.
The Great Awakening
• Spontaneous, evangelical revivals
• People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and
state, institutions and society
Movement occurred among many denominations in different
places at different times
• New England in the 1730s; Virginia in the 1750s and 1760s
The Great Awakening
1.
Jonathan Edwards sparked the movement - 1734
• Reminded people of omnipotent God and predestination
• Reaction to ministers going “soft” on population
The Voice of Evangelical Religion
1.
George Whitefield a dynamic
personality and speaker who sustained
the revivals
• Preached outdoor sermons to thousands of
people in nearly every colony
• Skilled entrepreneur and promoter
2.
Itinerant ministers followed
Whitefield’s example
• Split established churches into “new lights”
and “old lights”
The College of New Jersey at Princeton, 1764
p89
George Whitefield
Preaching
Americans of both
genders and all
races and regions were
spellbound by
Whitefield’s emotive
oratory.
p88
The Voice of Evangelical Religion
2.
Gave voice to those traditionally silenced
The Awakening promoted a democratic, evangelical union of
national scope
3.
Fostered sense of American unity
1.
The Voice of Evangelical Religion
1.
Despite outbursts of anti-intellectualism, “new lights” formed
colleges
• Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers
Table 5-2 p86
Colonial Governments
Because Britain was far away, colonists “created” their self
government
2. Politics are locally controlled. Local communities ran their own
affairs, formed local assemblies that functioned like mini English
Parliament.
3. Provincial governors appointed by the crown, but limited in
power in reality
4. Quasi self government did not become a problem until 1763
when Britain began to tighten its imperial policy.
1.
Sermon Activity
In your groups, write a short SERMON (1-2 paragraphs) that attacks
a SPECIFIC SIN.
•Be creative
•Use imagery and fiery language
•Elect one person to PREACH your sermon to the congregation

similar documents