Political culture and ideology

Report
Chapter 4
AP US Government and Politics
Mrs. Papish
POLITICAL CULTURE AND
IDEOLOGY
Shared Values
 Classic Liberalism-stresses the importance of
the individual, freedom, equality, private
property, limited government and popular
consent
American Political Culture
 Liberty
 Equality
 Individualism
 Power to the people
 Democratic consensus
 Justice and the rule of law
 Nationalism, optimism, and idealism
Liberty
 Most revered value
Equality
 Social Equality-no titles, no nobility
“We hold these truths to be self-evident
that…”
 Political Equality-right to equal protection
under the law, equal voting power-GOAL
not reality
 Equal Opportunity-background should not
limit one in regards to improving econ
status
Individualism
 Citizens have rights and responsibilities
 Concern for preserving individual freedom of
choice
Democracy
Democratic Consensus-as to government and the
Constitution
1. Majority Rule-minority rights
2. Two-party system and regular elections
3. Popular sovereignty-power to govern
Where do Americans differ…over what certain
constitutional provisions require or over the
precise meaning of the framers’ original intent
Justice by the Rule of Law
 Government based on a body of law applied
equally and by just procedures
Nationalism
 Optimism and idealism—our nation is better,
stronger and more virtuous than others
Political and Economic
Change
 Industrial transformation from agrarian to
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industrial
Consequence? Inequality in dist. of wealthRobber barons
Led to different opinions in politics
Monopolies led to unsafe work conditions
and anti-trust leg.
Americans believed gov should “promote the
general welfare” by regulating business
Great Depression and New
Deal
~Turned to gov to improve conditions for
jobless and homeless
~Today, most support semi-regulated or mixed
free enterprise system
~Second Bill of Rights called for economic
security and independence
~Civil and voting rights legislation & war on
poverty defined ideological and political
fights of last century
The American Dream
 A complex set of ideas about the economy
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and its relation to individuals; it speaks to our
most deeply held hopes and goals.
The U.S. is the “Land of Opportunity”
Endorsement of capitalism
Recurring issues-tax fairness
Conflict between those who value
competitive economy and egalitarian society
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s
“Second Bill of Rights”
 The right to a useful and remunerative job
 The right to affordable food, clothing, and
recreation
 The right of every farmer to earn a livable
income
 The right of every business[person] to trade
in a monopoly free environment
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s
“Second Bill of Right” –
con’t.
 The right of every family to a decent home
 The right to affordable and adequate medical
care
 The right to adequate protection from the
economic fears of old age, sickness, accident,
and unemployment
 The right to a good education
Political Ideologies
 Liberalism
 Socialism
 Conservatism
 Environmentalism
 Libertarianism
Liberalism
 Classic liberalism of 19th Century-min. gov.
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
involvement
Modern Liberalism~Support for government sponsored social
programs
~Support for government intervention in
economy
~Opposition to government interference with
personal morals or activities
~Opposition to expansion of the military
New Types of Liberalism
 ~New Deal Liberals
 ~Social Liberals-Peace Liberals
 ~Neoliberals-lost faith in welfare programs
Conservatism
~Opposition to government intervention in the
economy…Pro-business
~Opposition to government sponsored social
programs
~Favors dispersing power broadly to avoid
concentration of power at the national level
~Support for a strong military
~Belief in a free-enterprise system with
property rights
Conservatism
~Support use of military force as a means to an
ends
~Support balanced budget
~Support limited taxation
New Right
 1980’s strong desire to impose social controls
 Christian coalition of 90”s
 Neo Cons-Left the Democratic party over
busing, Vietnam issues, support intervention
in Iraq both times and still do in our
involvement in Afghanistan
Socialism
 DIVISIONS
 Democratic Socialism-
Great Britain, Germany, France, Scandinavian
nations
~Support democratic system
~Gov reg and ownership of major industries
~Support for production and distribution of goods
and services
~Support for gov planning to protect citizens’
welfare
Socialism, contin…
 Totalitarian socialism-same as communism
such a People’s Republic of China
 Beliefs
 Support for revolution against existing systems
 Gov regulation and ownership of industry
 Support for gov planning to protect citizens’
welfare and interests
Libertarianism
 Ideology that cherishes individual liberty and
sharply limited gov
 Preaches opposition to gov and just about all
programs
 Opposes all government regulation
Environmentalism
 “Green movement” –taken hold in parts of
Europe.
 U.S. Green party stresses social justice,
diversity, gentler farming techniques, energy
efficiency, integrity of nature
 2000-Ralph Nader won 3% of popular vote in
the Presidential election
Criticisms of Liberals
 Too much reliance on governmental solutions
 Forgets government has to be limited
 Big government tends to dictate
 Too many controls and too much taxation
Criticisms of Conservatives
 Gov seen as counter productive and inconsistent
 Critics argue conservatives have selective
opposition to big government
 Gov spending grew during all Rep
administrations since the 80’s
 Insensitive to social needs
 Too much faith in the market
 Failure to acknowledge and endorse policies
dealing with racism and sexism
Where do attitudes about the
role of government come
from?
 Family
 Schools
 Media
 Workplace
 Religious or political activities
Americans and Political
Ideology
 More Conservatives than liberals
 Fewer extreme liberals or conservatives, most
in the middle
 Ideological Views
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Provides a lens through which to view politics
Americans don’t always fit either ideology
Attitudes toward issues are inconsistant
Most Americans distrust big business more than
big government

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