the presentation

Report
Meta-analysis, Education Research &
the Sutton Trust-EEF Teaching and
Learning Toolkit
Professor Steve Higgins
School of Education, Durham University
s.e.higgins@durham.ac.uk
@stig_01
Carol Fitz-Gibbon’s vision for
education research
“that we might eventually have a clearer idea of the
conditions under which research findings can be
generalised”
Meta-analysis provides the means to judge:
"the substantive as opposed to statistical
significance” of the findings from educational
research
(Fitzgibbon, 1985, p 45)
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Development of meta-analysis


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1904 – Karl Pearson aggregates typhoid inoculation
studies
1940 – Pratt & Rhine – 145 ESP experiments
1976 – Gene Glass – does psychotherapy work?
1984/5 – Carol Fitzgibbon – advocates Glass’ “metaanalysis” in the British Educational Research Journal
1999 – first QUOROM guidelines
2009 – first PRISMA statement
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Rapid growth of meta-analysis
in medicine and psychology
Schulze, R. (2007) The state and the art of meta-analysis Zeitschrift
fur Psychologie/ Journal of Psychology, 215 pp 87-89.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049418/
Evidence – what do we need?

Evidence from trials and their synthesis (cumulative,
comparative aggregation) is necessary, but not
sufficient
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What worked, for whom, in what circumstances?
What was the causal mechanism?
How consistent is the effect (replication)?
How great is the variation?
How do we best use findings (re-create the cause)?
What is the probability of impact?
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Cumulative comparative meta-analysis
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meta-meta-analysis (Kazrin, Durac & Agteros, 1979)
mega-analysis (Smith 1982)
super-analysis (Dillon, 1982)
super-synthesis or meta-synthesis (Sipe & Curlette, 1997)
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Influential ‘super-syntheses’
1984 Bloom The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods
of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring
1992 Hattie Measuring the effects of schooling
1996 Hattie, Biggs & Purdie Effects of learning skills
interventions on student learning
1997 Sipe & Curlette A Meta-Synthesis Of Factors Related
To Educational Achievement
1998 Marzano A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research
on Instruction
2009 Hattie Visible Learning
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Current limitations
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Quality of underlying studies and data
Scale of studies
Aggregation loses variation
Assumes even bias in distribution of studies
Limited long term follow up – relies on post-test
Provides a large-scale map – hard to see the
detail
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
The Education Endowment
Foundation

Building evidence for what’s worked in schools
by identifying and rigorously evaluating innovative and
promising approaches

Sharing evidence with schools
by providing independent and accessible information
through the ST-EEF Teaching and Learning Toolkit

Promoting the use of evidence-based practice
through projects, events and resources (e.g. DIY
Evaluation Guide)
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Sutton Trust-EEF Teaching and Learning
Toolkit
2011
2014



Comparative meta-analysis
Provides a large-scale ‘map’ of intervention research
Uses effect size to identify cost/benefit - – best bets
http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit
Average Effects
0.8
0.6
Effect size
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
Approaches
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
The EEF approach
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
The EEF after 3 years (of 15)
34
4,500
topics in
the Toolkit
schools
participating
in projects
15
independent
evaluation
teams
£220
m
estimated spend
over lifetime of
the EEF
500,000
11
pupils involved
in EEF projects
funding
rounds to
date
4,000
87
heads
presented to
since launch
projects
funded to
date
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
Initial results
Toolkit theme
ES (d)
EEF Project
One to one tuition1
0.44 (overall)
0.22 (TAs)
Catch Up Numeracy
(using Teaching Assistants)
Impact
(d)
0.21
0.27
Notes
Security
findings
Catch up group (v controls)
Time equivalent group
(v. controls)
One to one tuition
(using TAs)
0.44 (overall)
0.22 (TAs)
Switch-On Reading
(using TAs)
Summer school
0.19
Future Foundations Summer 0.17
School
0.00
English
Maths
Summer school
0.19
Discover Summer School
0.21
0.24
Very insecure
Reading; Writing
Grammar2 for Writing
0.10
0.21
Overall impact
Small group v control
Response to intervention
0.19
High attrition
Using
Self-Regulation
Improve Writing
Rhythm for Reading
to 0.74
Small group
0.34
(Grammar
-0.32
instruction)
One to one
0.44
Small group
0.34
Meta-cognition
0.62
and self-regulation
Arts Participation
0.16
of
0.24
0.03 n.s
“self-regulated
development”
Rhythm based
reading
findings
strategy
notation
1 Programmes which used experienced and specifically trained teachers tend to be more effective than those using volunteers or classroom
assistants (nearly double the effect): http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/one-to-one-tuition/
2 Grammar instruction d= -0.32 (Graham and Perrin 2007)
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
‘Data warehouse’ of EEF findings
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Database of projects and intervention data
Designed to be matched with national test results
2014 – first 5 projects as a pilot – exploratory
analysis
In 3 years, results from up to 100 interventions
and over 500,000 pupils
By 2027, about 500 interventions, over 1 million
pupils, post-test and follow up data?
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
EEF database potential
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Identify comparative impact
Assess variation in impact (on individuals/ sub-groups, etc.)
Track impact of interventions over time
Estimate number/ extent of interventions needed
to ‘close the gap’
Explore methodological issues (e.g. different methods of
calculation, ICC, impact of attrition)
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
‘It may encourage readers who feel grave misgivings
about social science qua science to know that Glass,
the main proponent of meta-analysis is no
thoughtless naïve or dogmatic positivist. … Of metaanalysis, Glass et al. concluded cautiously,
“The approach we call meta-analysis seems to be too
plainly reasonable to be false in any simple sense.
Whether it will be useful is a different matter”.’
(Fitzgibbon, 1985, p 48-9)
http://bit.ly/HigCEM30
References
Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13(6), 4-16.
Dillon, J.T., (1982). Superanalysis. American Journal of Evaluation 3(4) pp 35-43.
Fitz‐Gibbon, C. T. (1984). Meta‐analysis: an explication. British Educational Research Journal, 10(2), 135-144.
Fitz‐Gibbon, C. T. (1985). The implications of meta‐analysis for educational research. British Educational Research Journal, 11(1), 45-49.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 445.
Glass, G. V. (1976). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, 5(10), 3-8.
Hattie, J.A. (1992). Measuring the effects of schooling. Australian Journal of Education, 36, 5-13.
Hattie, J.A. (2008). Visible Learning. London: Routledge.
Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 99-136.
Higgins, S., Katsipataki, M., Kokotsaki, D., Coleman, R., Major, L.E., & Coe, R. (2014). The Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning Toolkit.
London: Education Endowment Foundation. Available at: http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/
Kazrin, A., Durac, J., & Agteros, T. (1979). Meta-meta analysis: A new method for evaluating therapy outcome. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17(4), 397-399.
Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzsche PC, Ioannidis JP et al. (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies
that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med 6:e1000100
Marzano, R.J. (1998). A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction. Aurora, Colorado, Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory. Available at:
http://www.mcrel.org:80/topics/products/83/ (viewed 31/05/11).
Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF (1999) Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM
statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet 354:1896–900
Pearson, K. (1904) Report of certain enteric fever inoculation statistics , British Medical Journal, 1, pp. 1243–1246.
Sipe, T. & Curlette, W.L. (1997). A Meta-Synthesis Of Factors Related To Educational Achievement: A Methodological Approach To Summarizing And Synthesizing MetaAnalyses. International Journal of Educational Research 25.7. pp 583-698.

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