Social media, the Internet and its potential for medical research and education Keynote Speech Clinical Academic Trainees’ Conference 2013 Professor Alan Eardley Professor of Enterprise Computing School of Computing Staffordshire University Purpose of the keynote speech • To promote discussion and debate on the role use of social media in medical education After all, if fights break out, there will be a doctor in the house... • To introduce you to some people who are central to moving forward this debate And most of them use Facebook, blogs and Twitter...and do ‘selfies’ • To relate some academic theory to practice and introduce some research resources Social media and medical research and education This could be the shortest presentation ever... we could say: “Get off Facebook and Twitter... and read ‘the Pocket Tutor book of Surface Anatomy’ by Richard Tunstall and Nehal Shah... or ‘Grant's Atlas of Anatomy’ edited by Anne Agur and Arthur Dalley”... or some of the other BMA award winning medical books – but would we be missing something? Such as the potential of social media to revolutionise medical education, perhaps? What is the potential of social media? • Is social media just for social purposes? • What academic research is there examining the use of social media in these areas? • What examples of social media applications are there in medical research and education? Social media...for social purposes? Some arguments against the value of social media in medical research and education • Anonymity of information = lack of authority • Excessive triviality inherent in the media • Lacks peer review processes and material • Implies complicated ethical issues • Time consuming and complex in use • Need to ‘keep up to speed’ with the technology What do the search analytics say? And what about academic research and practice? US Facebook & Twitter searches 2013 (according to Azntaiji Multimedia and SocialRadius ) But...definitions of ‘social media’ • Social media is an online environment opened for the purposes of mass collaboration, where all invited participants can create, post, rate, enhance, discover, consume, and share content without a direct intermediary (Bradley and McDonald, 2011) Note the phrases ‘mass collaboration’ and ‘without a direct intermediary’ • ‘The means of interactions among people in which they create, share, and/or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks’. (Alquist et al. 2008) Take out the word ‘virtual’ and what do we have? • ‘A group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010) What ‘ideological and technical foundations’ in medical research? What type of medical content is being created and exchanged? More on the definitions related to research • A virtual community may be defined as ...“a group of people that primarily interact through media such as newsletters, telephone, email, internet social networks and instant messaging rather than face to face”. (Wikipedia.com) • Public engagement describes how researchers connect and share their work with the public to build trust, understanding and collaboration, and increase the relevance and impact of research on society. (Vitae.ac.uk) • Mass collaboration is enabled by and conducted through social media. It involves people who may not otherwise have had a preexisting relationship, quickly and effectively contributing to and giving feedback on the development of an idea, artefact, process, plan. (Vitae.ac.uk) This sound more promising! The social media technology... ...is in fact a combination of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 Britannica Online Wikipedia personal websites blogs and tweets publishing directories (taxonomy) site ‘stickiness’ static information participation tagging (‘folksonomy’) content syndication dynamic applications Adapted from O’Reilly, Tim. ‘What Is Web 2.0?’ http://oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html?page=1. Social media characteristics • The WWW as the platform • ‘WWW vs. MS Windows’ • Applications harnessing collective intelligence • ‘The wisdom of crowds’ and ‘the global brain’ • Software as a service, not a product • Evolutionary development and continuous testing – Software above the level of a single device (BYOD) – User generated/controlled content – Richer user experiences/involvement An example: You need to find out about iodine deficiency - ‘the single greatest preventable cause of mental retardation, is an important public health problem’ (WHO *) Sources you could use for reference • NHS Choices (Web 1.0)? • Wikipedia (Web2.0)? • An old UK medical textbook? • Medical blog or forum? • A curated special interest site such as Scoop.it? *The Lancet (12 July 2008). ‘Iodine deficiency — way to go yet’. 372 (9633):88. NHS Choices - Web 1.0 http://www.nhs.uk/news/2013/05may/pages/lack-of-maternal-iodine-may-damage-childs-iq.aspx • Presented as news; ‘Where did the story come from?’ – What is the target audience? • References/citations – 4 to newspaper articles – 2 to research and peer-reviewed article (ALPAC & Lancet) • ‘Useful Links’ – To other NHS Choices sites (relevance?) • No ‘symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology or treatment...’ • Authorship – ‘Analysis by Bazian’, ‘Edited by NHS Choices’ • Timeliness – Last update ‘Wednesday May 22 2013’ Wikipedia - Web 2.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_deficiency • Presented as evidence-based medical facts and advice • References/citations – 22 to peer-reviewed articles/UNICEF/WHO publications – Wikipedia is asking for ‘more citations for verification’ • ‘Useful Links’ – 4 external links to relevant sites etc. – Many ‘hot links’ to other Wikipedia entries • Includes information on risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology and treatment etc. • Authorship unknown • Timeliness – Last update 21st October 2013 – Possibility of continuous update through editing What about the other sources? What are the factors ‘for and against’? • The old UK medical textbook • A medical blog or forum • A curated special interest site such as Scoop.it Academic research Now for the boring but important bit, the underpinning academic research... Paper: ‘Social media and health education: what the early literature says’ (JDE) • Accelerates information sharing and speeds the transformation of one-way monologues into collaborative dialogues • Democratises and spreads knowledge widely and accesses more diverse perspectives • Helps to form and knit together communities of practice • Encourages greater openness and transparency • Stimulates collaborative knowledge building and reduces the cost of participation and co-ordination of resources and actions Gorham, R. Carter, L. Nowrouzi, B. McLean, N. and Guimond, M. (2012) Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says. Journal of Distance Education. 26(2) The Vitae project (OU) The Vitae Innovate social media in education project • Surveyed 105+ researchers in UK, USA, Europe & Australia • Used mailing lists, discussion forums, blogs, Twitter, etc. Main contribution of the research: • Stages of the research process at which social media is used • Types of use of social media in medical research • The social media technologies and applications that are used The findings are summarised (very) briefly in the following slides It is worth reading the Handbook in detail. Handbook for social media for researchers and supervisors. Minocha, A. and Petre, M. Centre for Research in Computing, OU. http://www.vitae.ac.uk/CMS/files/upload/Vitae_Innovate_Open_University_Social_Media_Handbook_2012.pdf Types of use of social media in research • Formal research contact (e.g. with supervisors) • Informal research contact (e.g. with other researchers and advisors) • Document authoring, storage and exchange • Carrying out the research process (e.g. developing and reflecting on research ideas) • Engaging with the research community (i.e. ‘keeping in touch’) • Maintaining research currency (i.e. ‘keeping up to date’) Handbook for social media for researchers and supervisors. Minocha, A. and Petre, M. Centre for Research in Computing, Open University. http://www.vitae.ac.uk/CMS/files/upload/Vitae_Innovate_Open_University_Social_Media_Handbook_2012.pdf Examples of social media The really useful bit: examples of social media used in research Formal research contact Handbook for social media for researchers and supervisors. • E-mail and attachments – e.g. Outlook, GMail, Yahoo • Audio/video conferencing – e.g. GoogleChat (audio) – e.g. Skype, Audacity, Vroom (with BB), Scopia, Flash Meeting • Collaborative working – e.g. BlackBoard Collaborate, Moodle • Wiki software – e.g. MediaWiki, Wikispaces • Virtual working – e.g. Second Life Informal research contact Handbook for social media for researchers and supervisors • Dialogue/messaging – e.g. SMS, Twitter (see http://www.symplur.com/healthcare-hashtags/) – e.g. Ning, LinkedIn, Facebook • Blogs – e.g. Wordpress, Blogger • Discussion forums – e.g. Careflow.com (previously DocCom), LinkedIn • Self-developed group or team Wiki – e.g. MoinMoin wiki engine • Meetings – e.g. Flashmeeting Document authoring, storage and exchange These tools have some collaborative capability • Document authoring – e.g. Googledocs, Webworks e-publisher • Content storage and management – e.g. Drupal, Dropbox • Document organising and referencing – e.g. Mendeley, iPapers • Curating – e.g. Storify.com, Scoop.it, Pearltrees.com Carrying out the research process • Secondary research – e.g. Google Scholar • Thought development – e.g. Mindgenius, Wordle • Working together – e.g. BrainKeeper, LinkedIn • Many researchers were supported by their institutions’ VLEs Minocha, A. and Petre, M. (2012) Handbook for social media for researchers and supervisors. Centre for Research in Computing, OU. Engaging with the research community • Bookmarking – e.g. Delicous, Diigo • Networking – Facebook, LinkedIn, Academia.edu • Virtual meetings – Second Life • Sharing material – Youtube, Slideshare, Prezi Maintaining research currency • Following/alerts – e.g. Twitter, Zetoc, RSS feeds • Mailing lists/forums – e.g. Netvibes, academia.edu • Content – e.g. Ted Talks, Youtube, Google Reader Other useful Vitae handbook contents... Useful Vitae handbook contents • • • • • Guidelines for digital professionalism Comprehensive list of social media resources Advice on intellectual property rights Summary of ethical issues The Vitae Researcher Development Framework http://www.vitae.ac.uk/researchers/429351/Introducing-the-Researcher-Development-Framework.html Handbook of social media for researchers and supervisors. Vitae Innovate project. Centre for Research in Computing, OU. 2012. http://www.vitae.ac.uk/CMS/files/upload/Vitae_Innovate_Open_University_Social_Media_Handbook_2012.pdf People worth following... • Curators on Scoop.it . #FOAMed (Free Open Access Medical Education) – Natalie Lafferty, University of Dundee (NLafferty) – Analisa Manca, University of Dundee (Annalisa Manca) http://www.scoop.it/t/social-media-learning-medical-education – Dr Laura Jane Smith, UCL (drlj.wordpress.com) http://www.slideshare.net/eLime/amee-2013-foamed-workshop • Social Media in Medical Education: The Debate at the University of Leicester Medical School. 26/6/2013. – Dr Damian Roland – Dr Rakesh Patel http://vimeo.com/72652708 • Handbook of social media for researchers and supervisors. Vitae project. – Dr. Shailey Minocha – Professor Marian Petre Centre for Research in Computing, OU. 2012. http://www.vitae.ac.uk/CMS/files/upload/Vitae_Innovate_Open_University_Social_Media_Handbook_2012.pdf Some online resources BMA. Using social media: practical and ethical guidance for doctors and medical students – http://www.medschools.ac.uk/SiteCollectionDocuments/social_media_guidance_may2011.pdf GMC Doctors’ use of social media – http://www.gmc-uk.org/Doctors__use_of_social_media.pdf_51448306.pdf British Psychological Society guidance on the use of social media – http://www.bps.org.uk/system/files/images/2012_ethics_committee_social_media.pdf Doctors 2.0 ™ and You’ conference (June 5-6 2014, Paris) – http://www.doctors20.com/ JuniorDr.com. ‘For junior doctors by junior doctors’ – http://www.juniordr.com/index.php/mps-advice-centre/digital-docs-the-pitfalls-of-usingsocial-networking-sites.html The Social MEDia Course – http://thecourse.webicina.com/ Fred Cavazza . Social media commentator and reporter – http://www.fredcavazza.net/2012/02/22/social-media-landscape-2012/ Social Media in Medical Education Blog – http://socialmediainmeded.blogspot.co.uk/ Bibliography Greenhow, C. (2011). ‘Online social networks and learning’. On the Horizon. 19(1), Pp. 4-12. Greenhow, C. (2009). ‘Social scholarship: applying social networking technologies to research practices’. Knowledge Quest. 37(4), Pp. 42-47. Eytan, T., Benabio, J., Golla Rahul Parikh, V., & Stein, S. (2010). ‘Social media and the health system’. The Permanente Journal, 15(1), Pp.71-74. Carpenter, J., Wetheridge, L., Smith, N., Goodman, M, and Struijvé, O (2010) Researchers of tomorrow: A three year (BL/JISC) study tracking the research behaviour of 'Generation Y‘ doctoral students. Accessed 16/10/13. Available at: http://www.efc.co.uk/projects/researchers_of_tomorrow.jsp Minocha, S. and Kerawalla, L. (2010). Understanding students' self-motivated blogging and development of study skills and research skills. In: Lee, M.J.W. and McLoughlin, C. (Eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching. IGI Global, Pp. 149–179. Gorham, R. Carter, L. Nowrouzi, B. McLean, N. and Guimond, M. (2012) Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says. Journal of Distance Education. 26(2) Accessed 21/10/13 at http://www.jofde.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/791/1411 Questions? And now the exciting bit.... Discussion!