Unit 2 CULTURE Culture Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society. General term for all symbolic and learned aspects of human society. Some believe that certain primates have the capacity for culture Reflection Does culture determine how we think and act? What is the “tool kit” for survival? Two Types of Culture Material Culture Non-Material Culture The physical or tangible The abstract or intangible human creations that members of a society make, use and share. Look around the room. What judgments can you make about our society simply based on the material culture located here? Examples of material culture that are important to you? creations of society that influence people’s behavior. Language, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns and political systems. Beliefs are most important – what are some beliefs our society holds? Cultural Universals Day 2- Intro to Culture\Cultural Universals.doc Customs and practices that occur across all societies WAYS OF VIEWING CULTURE Ethnocentrism The practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture Based on the assumption that one’s own way of life is superior to all others Can be positive or negative Why might this map be considered ethnocentric? Cultural Relativism The belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards Nacerima reading Four Components of Culture Symbols Language Values Norms Culture Come Up with Your Own… With a partner, generate a list of the following components of culture Symbols Language Values Norms Components of Culture Graphic Organizer -Day 3 - Symbols and Language\Culture_go.docx Symbols Any act or thing which represents something else. Instructions: Each group has been given an envelope containing different symbols. On a blank piece of paper write down your initial reaction to each symbol as it is removed from the envelop. (this should be done individually and without speaking) When all symbols have been examined share with your group and create a single consensus of what each symbol represents. Questions Were your reactions to the symbols the same or different? Which symbols produced different responses? Which symbols produced similar reactions? What does this tell us about American Society? Do we have a shared culture or is it relative to your upbringing or maybe region? Symbols Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture. Symbols may represent many things depending on culture or personal interpretation. Examples: Objects (flag), gestures (peace), sounds (bell system), image (Ban. Republic vs. Wet Seal) What does this Symbol Mean? Worn by early aviators as a sign of good luck - 1912 Tomb from Medieval Bosnia Logo of the Indian State of Bahir Holy Symbol in Jainism Native American Basket Ball team - 1909 Pavement of Amiens Cathedral Iran – 1st Millennium BCE What is meant by Status Symbol? Can we make assumptions about people by how they are dressed or what type of car they drive? What do different possessions tell us about one another? Do our choices reveal our social class? What possessions signify wealth? Middle Class? Working Class? Who makes these decisions? Have you made any purchases to enhance your status? Are we what we own? What could be some problems with defining people based on Status Symbols? Language Defined as a set of symbols and/or sounds that express ideas and enable people to think and communicate. On a piece of paper create two columns: label one Men and the other Woman. List examples of slang for men and women. On the back of this paper create a list of slang for different racial or ethnic groups It’s ok if SOME of the examples are offensive – that’s the point! What can we learn from negative slang? How powerful is language in your life? Language Language and Gender English can ignore women i.e. huMAN, MANkind. Can be positive when referring to Men. Examples? When related to women, it can be negative or convey weakness, inferiority or immaturity. Examples? Language, race and ethnicity How can language reinforce perceptions about race and ethnicity? Language and Gender “If a woman is swept off a ship into the water, the cry is `Man overboard!' If she is killed by a hit-and-run driver, the charge is `manslaughter.' If she is injured on the job, the coverage is `workmen's compensation.' But if she arrives at a threshold marked `Men Only,' she knows the admonition is not intended to bar animals or plants or inanimate objects. It is meant for her.” ---Alma Graham Language Language is the most important set of symbols and allows for the most cultural transmission. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (does language influence or determine our behavior?) Can show intelligence within a field, racism, and gender bias Language and Gender Do “Prince” and “Princess”, “God” and “Goddess”, “King” and “Queen” have the same meaning but simply refer to different sexes? Are “you’re such a man” and “you’re such a woman” equal compliments? Insults? Annie Edson Taylor is often described as “the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel”, while Neil Armstrong is ``the first man to walk on the moon.” Does it matter? C:\Documents and Settings\rnulty\Desktop\Shortcut to Fairy Tale.lnk sleeping beauty reading Fairty tale.docx Create your own politically correct bed time story. Look at the traditional story through current issues and apply gender/racial neutral terms. Was this easy? Difficult? Why don’t we do this with more things? Photostory…. Language Read the vignette from pgs. 83-84 about language. Should those who are in the United States speak only English? Values Collective ideas about what is right or wrong etc… Values Values are collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture. Usually come in pairs – generous & stingy What are other examples? Using the graphic organizer create your own definition of each of the Ten US Core Values. Read page 86 of your text. How does your definition of each value differ? Which Values are most important in the United States? Are there any value contradictions? Values and Beliefs pamphlet - ..\Beth Sociology\Unit 2- Culture and Social Interaction\ch 3 values and beliefs.doc Values Ideal Culture vs. Real Culture Ideal Culture refers to the values and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold. Real Culture refers to the values and standards of behavior that people actually follow. With a partner create a list of examples of Ideal Culture and Real Culture in the United States? Values Culturally defined standards of desirability, goodness, and beauty that serve as broad guidelines for social living. Used to defend our behavior and the behavior of those around us Brave vs. coward; hard-working vs. lazy Norms Established rules of behavior and rules of conduct. Norms Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct. Folkways are everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture. Examples? Mores are strongly held norms that may not be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture. Examples? Taboos are mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive. Examples? Norms Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. Types of Norms mores- must follow at risk of ridicule, loss of employment, or even imprisonment Can change over time (role of women, acceptance of infidelity, etc.) folkways- informal and do not have to follow completely (brush your teeth two times a day) Norms Prescriptive Norms Behavior that is acceptable (shake hands) Proscriptive Norms Behavior that is unacceptable (spit in class) Formal Norms Laws enforced by positive and negative sanctions Informal Norms Enforced through social interaction Norms Some norms contradict themselves Individualism vs. cooperation Other norms are idealistic and not what we actually live by Speed limit, cursing, drinking, cheating, lying, etc What are the norms associated with a conversation? NORMS Norms “Every generation laughs at the old fashions, but religiously follows the new.” - Henry David Thoreau "To be nobody but yourself in a world which is doing its best night and day to make you like everybody else means to fight the hardest battle any human being can fight and never stop fighting.“ - e.e. cummings Activity Using your fairy tale, fable, or example of American folk tale create a list of Values, and Norms represented in the story. Divide the Norms into lessons about Folkways, Mores and Taboos. Be prepared to share with the class. Not all stories will include each Norm, the idea is to see how children’s stories are used to transmit culture to future generations. Mission: Break a Norm! Social/Verbal Classroom Bathroom Hallway Elevator Cafeteria Office Park Home Culture at South Does South have a distinct culture? Describe. cb south culture.docx Culture at CB South List some of the different groups of people here at South… Do you think that they are similar at West & East? POPULAR CULTURE High Culture Low Culture Subculture Counterculture WITHIN ONE CULTURE THERE EXISTS CULTURAL DIVERSITY High Culture and Low Culture High Culture- cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite. Beverly Hills, Weezer Low Culture- cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population. Examples? Is one better than the other? Subculture and Counterculture Subculture- cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population. Amish, Irish, Italians, and Puerto Rican American’s Counterculture- cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society. Examples? Activity Fold a blank piece of paper in half. Label the left side Column A and the right side Column B As you listen to SONG A write down everything you think and feel. What is the artist singing about, what is the emotion of the song? Listen to SONG B and write down everything you think and feel. What is the artist singing about, what is the emotion of the song? Which song did you enjoy more? Describe experiences you have had with culture shock. Show and Tell In your groups describe your selected item, not just its appearance, but WHAT IT MEANS. Example: Starbucks triple vente skinny vanilla latte – yup, my order is that obnoxious. Convenience – someone is always ready to make my coffee. Control – the baristas make coffee on demand. Name recognition – guaranteed similar drink at many locations. What values of American culture are present in this item? What values of American Culture are present in your items? Multiculturalism Your textbook defines multiculturalism as an educational program recognizing past and present cultural diversity in US society and promoting the equality of all cultural traditions. Could there be other definitions? Multiculturalism What do Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and Ronald Takaki think about multicultural education? How can that help us evaluate the Social Studies curriculum in Central Bucks School District? C.B. Social Studies sequence Grade Course 7 The Ancient World 8 US History to Reconstruction 9 US History- Reconstruction through WWII 10 11 Recent American History and American Political Systems Modern World History 12 International Relations and Economics Multiculturalism Pretend you are at a school board meeting and someone has proposed that the Central Bucks School District make a greater effort to include multicultural education in the Social Studies curriculum. It is now open for moderated discussion. Multiculturalism Our School District should make a greater effort to include multicultural education in the Social Studies curriculum. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Multiculturalism In a post 9/11 world, does multicultural education in the United States strengthen or weaken American democracy? Write down what you think are the core values of mainstream American life? Where could we look to find them? Is patriotism a core American value? Patriotism: Love for one’s country, to support, serve, and defend, to be inspired by, to change for the better and to care deeply for its citizens. WHAT IS PATRIOTIC? Neilson Ratings SPEND 20 MINUTES PLAYING YOUR BOARD GAME. Write a paragraph that explains the extent to which the values of US culture are represented in the game you played. Use Robin Williams’ list on pp 70-71. THE GAMES PEOPLE PLAY To what extent does your game teach the values of US culture? Equal Opportunity Progress Achievement and Science Success Democracy and Material Comfort Free Enterprise Activity and Work Freedom Practicality and Racism and Group Efficiency Superiority Should any values be added or removed from the list? Equal Opportunity Progress Achievement and Science Success Democracy and Material Comfort Free Enterprise Activity and Work Freedom Practicality and Racism and Group Efficiency Superiority Which of these values are inconsistent with others? Equal Opportunity Progress Achievement and Science Success Democracy and Material Comfort Free Enterprise Activity and Work Freedom Practicality and Racism and Group Efficiency Superiority TELL USE ABOUT YOUR VIOLATION OF SOCIAL NORMS EXPERIENCE. Breaking Norms! (1) Break a social norm of dress/attire. (Caution: do not wear anything illegal, dangerous, or extremely disruptive.) Try dressing in female clothes if you are male. Wear formal attire to a casual get together. Wear a winter jacket in the summer. Wear sandals in the snow. Wear stripes with polka dots. Wear an unstylish or outdated outfit. (2) Next, interact with others and observe their responses while wearing your norm-breaking outfit. (3) Discussion Did you experience sanctions? Were there subtle punishments for breaking social norms? How does conforming to and violating social norms fit into the lifelong process of socialization? How does society maintain social control? Social Control- means by which members of society encourage conformity to norms. How does society maintain social control? Social Control- means by which members of society encourage conformity to norms. Common means: Sanctions Internalization Sanctions Positive Sanctions Negative Sanctions Formal Sanction Informal Sanctions Please identify examples of each. Construct a chart that illustrates how sanctions are used at CB South Positive Sanctions Formal Sanctions Informal Sanctions Negative Sanctions HOW EFFECTIVE ARE For example, detentions. SANCTIONS? Problems with sanctions A positive sanction for one person acts as a negative sanction to another. If someone only engages in behavior because of sanctions they will cease to engage in that behavior if the sanction is removed or does not increase. If someone engages in behavior because of a sanction they are not engaging in the most desirable behavior. ALL SANCTIONS ARE EXTERNAL. ALL SANCTIONS ARE EXTERNAL. THE MOST DESIRABLE RESULTS WILL COME FROM INTERNAL MOTIVATION. ALL SANCTIONS ARE EXTERNAL. THE MOST DESIRABLE RESULTS WILL COME FROM INTERNAL MOTIVATION. APPLY THIS TO SCHOOL. On the first day of this class why did you sit in a seat? Internalization Norms have become integrated into your personality. You no longer need sanctions to conform to many norms. As a result, you may feel: Shame-painful sense that others disapprove of our actions. Guilt- negative judgement we make of ourselves. Pride- sense of gratification. For most of you, When you violated the conversation norm, the reaction of the person you were talking to was the negative sanction. Your feeling of awkwardness was internalization. Choose one issue at CB South that is currently controlled through sanctions and develop a method to achieve desirable results without the use of formal reward or punishment. MORE APPLICATION… CULTURAL CHANGE How many women in the room would feel comfortable asking someone out on a date? CULTURAL CHANGE How many women in the room would feel comfortable asking someone out on a date? Who is responsible for paying for the first date? When does this change? CULTURAL CHANGE How many women in the room would feel comfortable asking someone out on a date? Who is responsible for paying for the first date? When does this change? Do people really date anymore? CULTURAL CHANGE CULTURAL CHANGE Why did these norms change? Causes of Cultural Change Invention the process of creating new cultural elements Discovery- recognizing and better understanding something that already exists Diffusionspread of cultural traits from one society to another Cultural Change and Values Since the US emphasizes values such as innovation, progress and science, our culture is more likely to change than others. Invention We will investigate how inventions have changed our cultural norms, values and/or beliefs. Let’s use the Air Conditioner as an example. As a result of the air conditioner… Florida and Las Vegas could be developed. The uniqueness of southern culture was diminished. For example, similar clothing can be sold across the US. Federal Government employees could work beyond the 90 degree temperature/humidity index. Governmental growth? Diminished importance of front porches. Your turn… 1) http://inventors.about.com/library/bl/bl12.htm 2) Identify the inventions that you researched and explain how they work to your group. 3) Discuss how the norms, values, beliefs and/or language of society changed because of that invention. 4) Create a graphic organizer that illustrates that information. 5) Evaluate the positive and negative aspects of those changes in American culture. In your notebook Analyze culture from the structural-functional perspective and the socialconflict perspective. In your notebook Analyze culture from the structural-functional perspective and the socialconflict perspective. Check your analysis on pp. 85-87 consider To what extent does culture act as a freedom and to what extent does culture act as a constraint?