FASHION CYCLES & THE CONSUMER HNB4MI Review ◦ With the person beside you determine the definition of ◦ Style ◦ Design ◦ Fashion ◦ You need to have a solid understanding of these terms from previous lessons before we can move forward. Lesson Objectives ◦ Examine the fashion cycle as it relates to time and sales volume. ◦ Learn that a relationship exists between the fashion cycle, consumer spending, and fashion acceptance. ◦ Different consumer groups including fashion innovators, leaders, followers, and laggards are considered in relation to the fashion cycle and fashion acceptance. ◦ Learn the meaning of fad, trend, fashion cycle Style Recap ◦Remember what the word style means? A style refers to the unique characteristics of a garment. It is these unique characteristics that distinguish one garment or accessory from another. ◦Coats, skirts, dresses, and pants are all styles; however, there are many variations within each style group. 1901 1910- Present 1920s 1942 1945 1954 1957 1961 1964 1967 1969 1970 1971 1972 Cycling costume Jodhpurs Lounging Pajamas Front Pleated Pedal Pusher Toreador Clam Diggers Stirrup or Stretch Culotte Bell Bottom Knickers Gaucho Hot Pants Palazzo Pants 1975-76 Drawstring, Jogging, Full Skort, Cigarette Jeans 1980-1988 1990 1995-Present Jean Outfit, Baggy Jeans, Pleated Slack, Loave Pant, Cycling Shorts Stirrup or Stretch Capri Culottes Jodhpur Treador Clam Digger Palozzo ◦Although this list provides a timeline of some pant style variations, what is important to remember is that the style of a garment never changes. Rather, what does change is the acceptance of a style by the consumer. ◦When a style is accepted and purchased by the majority of a consumer group it becomes fashion. Laver’s Law 10 years before its time: "Indecent" 5 years before its time: "Shameless" 1 year before its time: "Outré/Daring" Peak of its popularity/current: "Smart" 1 year after its time: "Dowdy" 10 years after its time: "Hideous" 20 years after its time: "Ridiculous" 30 years after its time: “Amusing” 50 years after its time: "Quaint" 70 years after its time: “Charming” 100 years after its time: "Romantic" 150 years after its time: "Beautiful" Why Does Fashion Change ◦ As noted previously it is a consumer desire for new and innovative fashion is one reason fashion is constantly changing. ◦ In fact, the notion of the changing nature of fashion is recognized in the numerous definitions of fashion. ◦ To understand this changing nature of fashion you must look and study fashion within the context of the period in which it was produced, as fashion is always in harmony with the period in which it was created. Hamilton’s Influences of Fashion Continuum Level Influencing Factors Individual Individual choice Individual taste Design and aesthetic knowledge Individuality and conformity Attitudes towards fashion Social Groups Fashion leaders and innovators Fashion cycle Trickle-down/traditional adoption theory Trickle-up theory Trickle- across/mass adoption theory Fashion diffusion Fashion System Three industry levels Fashion designers Retail Buyers Fashion media and promotion Global production Cultural System Cultural values and ideology Tradition versus change Media, communication, arts, economy, religion, and political systems Generational and population trends Fashion Industry as Initiator of Change: ◦ Considering the fashion industry as the initiator of fashion change suggests that the industry dictates new fashion trends thus forcing change on the consumer. ◦ Fashion houses in Paris as influencing and dictating consumer choices through the media. ◦ Consumers have been known to reject new fashions that they believe have been forced on them. Consumers as the Initiator of Change: ◦ Many consumers love expressing themselves through their clothing choices regardless of what the fashion industry is promoting at that moment. ◦ Considering the consumer as the initiator of change suggests that a group of consumers focus on specific fashion products which results in the development of specific fashion trends. Four Theories that Explain Fashion Trends: 1. The upper socioeconomic (wealthy) consumer influences the beginning of fashion trends. 2. Fashion trends occur simultaneously within all socioeconomic groups. 3. Subcultures (e.g. hippies) influence the development of fashion trends. 4. Any creative and/or innovative individual can influence the development of fashion trends if their creations marry with the social climate of the period. Consumers as Initiators of Change Continued: ◦ Psychological reasons include the notion of diminished returns, as well as an understanding that consumers become bored with what they have and desire something new and exciting = artificial obsolesce. ◦ Psychological reasons focus on consumer wants. ◦ Rational reasons focus on consumer needs. ◦ For example, environmental needs have initiated change in fabric technology. The development of smart fabrics such as the UV screening fabrics is an example of a rational reason for initiating fashion change. ◦ Social needs may also initiate rational reasons for change. For example, the “dress for success” phenomenon began when more women entered upper management and administrative positions during the 1980s. Fashion Change is Gradual: ◦ Although changes in fashion are constant, for example new fashions appear each season, these changes are by nature gradual. ◦ Fashion change evolves. ◦ It is this evolutionary rather than revolutionary process that provides the foundation for those who are involved in fashion forecasting and identifying fashion trends, as well as designers, stylists, and those who work in the area of fashion communication and marketing. What is the Fashion Cycle? ◦ The term fashion cycle refers to the acceptance of a style (remember the definition of the term style) ◦ Beginning with the styles introduction, and moving through the styles growth, maturation, and eventual decline. ◦ Styles that last for more than one season are considered fashion. ◦ There is no set time frame for each style to move through the fashion cycle rather all styles go through the same stages of the fashion cycle regardless of the duration of their popularity. Fashion Cycle & Fads ◦ A style that is short-lived is called a fad. ◦ Fads can typically be produced and sold at a lower price point and hence flood the market for a short period of time and move through the fashion cycle very quickly ◦ The fashion industry is not particularly fond of fads as the money spent on the design, colour decisions, fabric selection, apparel and accessory production, and marketing can be quite costly and never recouped should the fad realize a quick demise. ◦ Examples of fads include: ◦ mood rings 70s/90s ◦ leg warmers 80s/00s. ◦ A fad that has stood the test of time can become a trend such as: White T-shirts, jeans What are our FADS? ◦ As a class lets aim to compile a list of TEN fads you have seen in your life time: The Fashion Cycle: CLASSICS ◦ A classic is a style that has staying power in the fashion cycle and hence the fashion industry. ◦ A classic becomes a wardrobe staple. ◦ Examples of a classic include: - jeans - white t-shirts - Blazer - trench coat Turn to your Fashion Cycle Hand Out ◦ Introduction ◦ -One-of-a-kind ◦ -Custom made ◦ -Seen at Major designer ◦ Fashion Shows ◦ -“Avant Garde” (cutting edge) ◦ Rise ◦ -Accepted by more people ◦ -Sold in exclusive stores ◦ -Expensive ◦ -Celebrities wear ◦ Culmination ◦ -Mass Produced ◦ -Wore by most Consumers ◦ -Ready-to-Wear ◦ -Average, affordable price ◦ -Malls, department stores etc. ◦ Decline ◦ -Sale Items ◦ -End of Season ◦ -e.g. Winners ◦ -Sidewalk Sales ◦ Obsolescence ◦ -Discount Stores ◦ -Liquidation price ◦ -Wore by consumers ◦ to whom fashion is not essential ◦ -e.g. ‘What not to Wear” Fashion Cycle & Trends: ◦ A fashion trend refers to design and style ideas that major collections have in common and indicate the direction in which fashion is moving. ◦ The trend may appear as a common silhouette, colour, or fabrication. ◦ Styles enter, mature, and exit the fashion cycle simultaneously. ◦ In other words, as one style is being introduced another is maturing, while another is on the decline. When a style has completed the fashion cycle it does not disappear forever. It eventually finds its way back into consumer favour often with a modern twist of a past design. ◦ It may take from ten to more than fifty years for a style to return to the fashion cycle. ◦ The reinterpretation and resurrection of styles from the past has become more common in the industry since 1995. Examples include the wrap dress popular in the 1970s which made a comeback for 2007/2008 and pointed pumps popular during the 1950s.