File - Singapore GeoSpatial Challenge

Report
A Very spatial Presentation
• ANCIENT BABYLONIAN
CLAY TABLETS
• DEPICT THE EARTH AS A
FLAT CIRCULAR DISK
• EARLIEST DIRECT
EVIDENCE OF MAPPING
COMES FROM THE
MIDDLE EAST
• EUROPEAN MAPS
WERE MORE
ECCLESIASTIC THAN
CARTOGRAPHIC
• DOMINATED BY THE
CHURCH
• ARAB MAPS
ADVANCED EARLIER
GREEK PRACTICES
• AL-IDRIS’S FAMOUS
WORLD MAP
•
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•
•
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•
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AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
SATELLITE IMAGES
COMPUTERS ELECTRONIC DISTANCEMEASURING INSTRUMENTS
INERTIAL NAVAIGATION SYSTEMS
REMOTE SENSING
APPLICATIONS OF SPACE SCIENCE CREATED
NEW EXTENSIONS OF CARTOGRAPHY’S
REACH
INTERNET INCREASED ITS ACCESSIBILITY
EVEN TO THE LAYMAN
•
AUTOMATIC DIGITIZATION OF JAPAN, < 17
SECONDS VS 17 YEARS IN 1821 (INOH
TADATAK
http://onemap.sg/
A reference tool to get to somewhere?
VERY LIMITED
DEFINITION
 A map is defined as a representation, usually on a flat surface, of a whole or part
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of an area.
The job of a map is to describe spatial relationships of specific features that the
map aims to represent.
There are many different types of maps that attempt to represent specific things.
Maps can display political boundaries, population, physical features, natural
resources, roads, climates, elevation (topography), and economic activities.
Maps are produced by Cartographers.
 General Reference Maps
 Thematic Maps
 Used to emphasize the geographic location of spatial phenomena.
 E.g. Topographic Maps
 A thematic map (or statistical map) is used to display the spatial pattern
of a theme or attribute. It emphasizes the spatial pattern of one or more
geographic attributes.
 Uses of a thematic map includes:
 Provide specific information about particular locations
 Provide general information about spatial patterns
 Compare patterns on two or more maps
Choropleth Map
Description: These maps contain
areas that are shaded or patterned
in proportion to the statistical
variable being displayed on the
map. Data are aggregated over
predefined areal units (politicallydefined area or administrative—
census or zip).
Optimal uses: Best used when data
are standardized (e.g., rates),
discrete, and are evenly distributed
within well-defined areal units.
Design Considerations: Number
of categories should be limited
(between 3 and 7).
Dot Map
Description: The spatial
geometry of each mapped area
is distorted to depict an
attribute other than land area
(e.g., population or income).
Optimal Uses: Best
accompanied by description of
mapping techniques; can be
constructed manually or
digitally.
Design
Considerations: Methods are
complex and interpretation
can be difficult.
Graduated Circle Map
Description: These maps
contain symbols varying in size
to show their relative
quantitative values; used with
point/location data.
Optimal Uses: Best used when
there is a lot of variation and
range in the data; the goal is to
show relative magnitudes of
phenomena at specific locations.
This is also good choice for count
data.
Design Considerations: Should
not be used for standardized data
such as rates or percentages.
Graduated Circle Map
Description: These maps
contain symbols varying in size
to show their relative
quantitative values; used with
point/location data.
Optimal Uses: Best used when
there is a lot of variation and
range in the data; the goal is to
show relative magnitudes of
phenomena at specific locations.
This is also good choice for count
data.
Design
Considerations: Should not be
used for standardized data such
as rates or percentages.
Isoline Map
Description: Isoline maps use
line symbols to portray a
continuous distribution such as
temperature or elevation.
Isolines are lines that connect
equal points of equal numeric
value.
Optimal Uses: One of the best
known types of isoline map is
the contour map, which shows
elevation above sea level.
Design:
Isopleth Map
Description: A contour map
that depicts smooth continuous
information (such as weather or
pollution data); data are
depicted using lines that connect
points of equal numerical value.
Optimal Uses: Serves as an
effective method for highlighting
spatial patterns in the data, as
opposed to depicting discrete
rates per enumeration area.
Design
Considerations: Requires
understanding of various
interpolation techniques.
Cartograms
Description: The spatial
geometry of each mapped area
is distorted to depict an
attribute other than land area
(e.g., population or income).
Optimal Uses: Best
accompanied by description of
mapping techniques; can be
constructed manually or
digitally.
Design
Considerations: Methods are
complex and interpretation
can be difficult.
http://research.larc.smu.edu.sg/palanteert/
MORE THAN GEOGRAPHY
Lets take a closer
look at this!
 Why do we need to look at this?
 The use of GIS in public health enables us to describe the
environment of the person and its spatial and temporal
complexity.
 Disease mapping has made contributions to public health
and epidemiology. GIS make it easier to map large
databases of health events.
 Helps determine the causes behind the emergence and the
re-emergence of infectious disease
• ENGLISH PHYSICIAN
• ONE OF THE FATHERS OF MODERN
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• EPIDEMIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE
PATTERNS, CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF HEALTH
AND DISEASE CONDITIONS IN DEFINITE
POPULATIONS. IOW, A SPATIAL SCIENCE.
H
Its spelt with a ‘H’
H
JO^N SNOW!
1831
 GIS is a key emerging and evolving industry throughout the world.
 GIS careers exist in every imaginable discipline, from environmental
science to commercial businesses and much more. This wide range of
opportunities available lets you combine your passions or interests with
GIS for a satisfying and successful career.
 Careers in GIS can also encompass business development, managerial,
and administrative roles.
Careers
Mapping/geospatial jobs are
varied and pervasive across many
different fields.
Mapping/Geospatial jobs range
from part-time to full-time
positions, and salary varies widely
by location, discipline, and
experience. Salary.com reports the
range between $38,919 for an
entry-level analyst to $103,333 for
a GIS supervisor as of January
2006 (go find out the latest)!
View the GISJobs.com Salary
Survey for a more in-depth look at
salaries.
 Sherlock Holmes
 Iron-Man
Join the Challenge!!!

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