works cited

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QUEBEC
ECOSYSTE
MS
• NOT ONLY A LAND OF LAKES AND RIVERS
- HAS FORESTS IN SOUTHERN REGIONS
• QUEBECERS HAVE HARVEST ALL KINDS OF RESOURCES
- SOFTWOOD
- HARDWOOD
--THEY ARE FROM THE:
• OUTAOUAIS, TÉMISCAMINGUE,
• SAGUENAY -- LAC – SAINT – JEAN REGIONS
• THESE RESOURCES WERE USED TO FEED THE FOREST INDUSTRY
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• HARDWOOD STANDS THAT SURVIVE IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS NO
LONGER INCLUDE ALL SPECIES
- TOO SMALL OR FRAGMENTED
REGIONS OF BIOMES
• QUEBEC IS IN THE BOREAL BIOME, OF BOREAL FORESTS
- ALSO CALLED “TAIGA”
LOCATION: THE NORTH OF THE
DECIDUOUS FOREST
AND SOUTH OF THE
ARCTIC TUNDRA
CLIMATE: USUALLY COLD
TEMPERATURES: ABOUT 5˚C TO -5˚C
WINTER: COLD AND LONG
SUMMER: SHORT AND COOL
GROWING SEASON: LESS THAN 3 MONTHS
THE
LARGEST TERRESTRIAL BIOME IN THE WORLD
REGIONS OF BIOMES
|VEGETATION AND FOREST ZONES|
• THE 2 MAJOR VEGETATION ZONES:
- TUNDRA
- TAIGA
• THE 3 MAJOR FOREST ZONES:
- BOREAL [CONIFEROUS]
- MIXED
- DECIDICUOUS
TUNDRA
• ASSOCIATED WITH ARCTIC AND ALPINE AREAS OF
THE CANADIEN SHIELD
• IN THE SUMMER, NATURAL INHABITANTS CONSIT OF
ABOUT:
- 500 PLANT SPECIES
- 160 SPECIES OF VERTEBRATES
- MIGRATORY BIRDS
- LARGE HERD OF CARIBOU
• COVERS ABOUT 24% OF QUEBEC
TAIGA
• HAVE PEAT BOGS AND ROCKY PLATEAUS COVERED IN
LICHENS THAT ARE DOTTED BY STANDS OF BLACK
SPRUCE
• CHARACTERIZED BY GREAT NUMBER OF BOTH
- 600 PLANT SPECIES
- 206 ANIMAL SPECIES
- TREE SPARROWS
(YEAR ROUND INHABITANTS)
• COVERS ABOUT 20% OF QUEBEC
FOREST ZONE 1
| BOREAL |
• MOST NORTHERLY AND ABUNDANT FOREST ZONES
- DOMINATED BY BLACK SPRUCE AND CARPETS OF MOSS
ECOLOGY OF THIS ZONE:
- HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY FIRE DISTURBANCE REGIMES
which means…
that forest fires are important in defining the numbers of, and
relationships between, living organisms
THERE IS A APPROXIMATELY:
- 850 PLANT SPECIES
- 281 VERTEBRATES
COVERS 27% OF QUEBEC
FOREST ZONE 2
| MIXED |
• THIS VEGETATION IS TRANSITIONAL
ECOLOGY: SHAPED BY BOTH FIRE AND INSECT DISTURBANCE REGIMES
• TRANSITIONAL NATURE CREATES A DIVERSITY WITHIN HABITATS
WHICH RESULT IN HIGH NUMBERS OF :
- 1000 PLANT SPECIES
- 350 VERTEBRATES
• INHABITATNTS:
- BEAVER
- BLACK BEAR
- MOOSE
• COVERS 111.5% OF QUEBEC
FOREST ZONE 3
| DECIDUOUS FOREST |
•ALSO CALLED “HARDWOOD FORESTS”
• THE THIRD AND MOST SOUTHERN
• HIGHEST DIVERSITY OF SPECIES
- 1600 VASCULAR PLANTS
- 440 VERTEBRATES
WILDLIFE: SUGAR MAPLE, WHITE-TAILED DEER, AND RACCOON
• THE GROWING SEASON IS ALMOST 200 DAYS
• THE FERTILE SOILS IN THIS ZONE
MAKES IT THE HEART OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY
• MOST OF QUEBEC’S POPULATION LIVE HERE
• COVERS 6.6% OF QUEBEC
CLIMATE
|CLIMOGRAPHS|
--------------
3 CITIES
QUEBEC CITY
MONTREAL
SHERBROOKE
QUEBEC HAS 4 TYPES OF
CLIMATE:
HUMID CONTINENTAL CLIMATE:
- 50 DEGREES NORTH LATITUDE
- SUMMERS ARE HOT AND TAD HUMID
- VERY COLD WINTERS
SUBARCTIC CLIMATE:
- LONGER WINTERS
- SHORTER,COOLER SUMMERS
ARCTIC CLIMATE:
- NORTHERN PART OF PROVINCE
- VERY COLD, DRY, WINTERS
- SHOT “THAW” SEASON
EAST MARITIME CLIMATE:
- FOUND AT “ÎLES-DE-LA-MADELEINE
- LONG, BUT COOL WINTERS
- SHORT, WARM, RAINY SUMMERS
CLIMATE
|QUEBEC CITY|
Temperature Range:
-12.4 - 19.1 C˚
Total Precipitation:
1207.8 mm
Growing Season:
May - October
CLIMATE: FAIRLY
HUMID AND COLD
BECAUSE OF THE
NORDIC AND
MARITIME
POSITION.
CLIMATE
|MONTREAL|
Temperature Range: 10.3 - 20.8 C˚
Total Precipitation:
938.7 mm
Growing Season:
May – October
CLIMATE
|SHERBROOKE|
Temperature Range:
-11.6 - 18. C˚
Total Precipitation:
1108.68 mm
Growing Season:
May – October
ENERGY
RESOURCES AND
MINERALS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What natural resources does Quebec supply?
TIMBER
MINERALS
ENERGY
|TIMBER|
• ONE OF THE MAIN DRIVING FORCES OF
QUEBEC’S ECONOMY.
- SUPPLY SOFTWOOD AND
HARDWOOD
TIMBER
• QUEBEC REPRESENTS THE MAJORITY OF
LUMBER, VENEER, PAPER, CARDBOARD,
AND PANEL COMPANIES
|MINERALS|
• ONE OF THE MAJOR PRODUCERS OF:
- ZINC
- IRON
- NICKEL
- COPPER
- GOLD
• QUEBEC’S AREA IS 1.7 MILLION KM AND ONLY 1% IS
CURRENTLY BEING MINED.
- THERE ARE MORE THAN 16 000 JOBS IN MINING INDUSTRY
• 3 MAIN MINING REGIONS:
- ABITIBI-TÉMISCAMINGUE
- THE NORTH SHORE
- THE NORD-DU-QUÉBEC REGION
|ENERGY|
• PRODUCES 97% GREEN
ELECTRICITY
- THEY HAVE A PLAN TO
BECOME A LEADER IN THE
FIELD OF SUBSTANTIAL
ENERGY
ECONOMIC ACIVITY
THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF QUEBEC
CAN BE DIVIDED IN
5 MAJOR PERIODS
ST
1
PERIOD
• Started with the arrival of French; lasted until Treaty of
Urecht in 1713.
- main economic activity was FUR TRADE
• MERCANTILIST system
- exported natural resources
AND THEN.. received manufactured foods from
metropolis
ND
2
PERIOD
(1713 - 1812) ; remained dominated by FUR TRADE
• attempted to diversify economy
- by improve farming and
encouraging projects like:
FORGES SAINT – MAURICE
“A National Historic Site of Canada and the
birthplace of the country’s iron industry.
It was created on March 25, 1730.”
3RD PERIOD
(1812 – 1867) ; wheat and timber replaced fur as
the main export products.
- Britain’s abolition of protectionist laws and
abandonment of mercantilist system
-
caused business elite of Canada and Quebec to be
the most important commercial and
financial center of the colony
- SOLUTION: transform Canada into industrialized
country (CONFEDERATION in 1867)
TH
4
PERIOD
(1867 – 1945); rise of industrial capitalism.
• the main industries of Quebec were in the sectors
of textiles, footwear, food, railways and timber
• 1900; hydroelectricity was the main source of energy
TH
5
PERIOD
(1945 – today) ; rapid development of modern
communications and services.
• a shift away from manufacturing
CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
_____________________________
• WATER MANAGEMENT
- PERIODS OF DROUGHT IN 2002 AND 2005 IN QUEBEC CITY
- REDUCED CITY’S SUPPLIES
~ CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE)
- OUTBREAK IN SAINT-CHARLES LAKE IN 2006/2007
• CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS AGAINST URANIUM MINING
(DECEMBER 2014)
- YOUNG MEMBERS OF JAMES BAY
CREE NATION WALKED 850KM TO MONTREAL
TO PROTEST URANIUM EXPLORATION AND MINING
SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
_________________________________
WATER MANAGEMENT:
• Quebec started a water policy in 2002 to
ensure the protection of this unique resource
- manage water with a view to sustainable development;
better protect public health and ecosystems.
• The policy will:
- protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems
- continue to cleanup and improve the management of
services
water
SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
_________________________________
Uranium Mining:
• Do not invade First Nations territory to mine Uranium
don’t mine uranium
• Try not to leave behind uranium waste, if they absolutely must mine
the uranium
WORKS CITED
INFORMATION
http://redpath-museum.mcgill.ca/Qbp/Natural History/nat_hist.html
http://www.gouv.qc.ca/portail/quebec/pgs/commun/portrait/economie/ressourcesnaturelles/?lang=en
http://www.ameriquefrancaise.org/en/article304/Harvesting_the_Stands_of_Eastern_White_Pine.html
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/quebec/ - h3_jump_2
http://geography.ridley.on.ca/CGC1D/Students/Quebec2/Geo./Climographs.htm
http://www.mern.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/forest/publications/20013073.pdf
http://www.mddelcc.gouv.qc.ca/biodiversite/aires_protegees/aires_quebec-en.htm
http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/boreal.htm
WORKS CITED
PICTURES:
https://carbbas.uqam.ca/upload/images/Vulgarisation/biome_boreal/boreal_forest_map.
gif
http://www.ameriquefrancaise.org/media-1193/55_6_apogee_industrie_bois.jpg
http://beaconnews.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/july13asbestosmine.jpg
http://eu-canada.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/windmills650x4791.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Flag_of_Quebec.svg/2000
px-Flag_of_Quebec.svg.png
http://gotoquebec.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/8/8/14885170/1533095_orig.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Taiga_in_Quebec.jpg
http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/Global/canada/image/2010/4/Multimedia/Boreal
Forest/GP01YVB.jpg
http://api.ning.com/files/kV4MbYiv7oRte09zIkoBpxVwvMoUNai16OPttyY3B5satsYawFnLXxMSOYJMtBhOBIobiYcTYyzmM8MY8ybkI
BljteA52D8/1082015573.jpeg
http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/20/60420-004-D5FBA331.jpg
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/cree-youth-walk-850-km-to-protest-againsturanium-mining-in-quebec-1.2872456
http://uraniuminvestingnews.com/20293/quebec-strateco-cree-mining.html
WORKS CITED
CLIMOGRAPHS
http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/c/CN71627070252500.php
http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/c/CN71714070162940.php
www.climate-charts.com/Locations/c/CN71610070281240.php
http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/c/CN71610070281240.php

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