Workplace Technology and Design

Report
Workplace
Technology
and Design
Presenters:
Eileen, Cindy, Abon, Felix
Date: 2012/01/03
Agenda

Core Organization Manufacturing Technology

Contemporary Applications

Core Organization Service Technology

Non-Core Departmental Technology

Workflow Interdependence among Departments

Impact of Technology on Job Design

Case study
Technology

It refers to the work processes, techniques,
machines, and actions used to transform
organizational inputs(materials, information,
ideas) into outputs (products and services).

Core technology
The work process that is directly related to the
organization’s mission.



Non-core technology
It is a department work process that is important
to the organization but not directly related to its
primary mission.
Manufacturing firms
Technical complexity
 It represents the extent of mechanization
of the manufacturing process.

 Three
basic technology groups:
1. Small-batch and unit production.
2. Large-batch production
3. Continuous-process production
Small-batch and unit production
 These
firms tend to be job shop operations
that manufacture and assemble small
orders to meet specific needs of
customers.
 It relies heavily on the human operators; it
is thus not highly mechanized.
Large-batch production
 It
is a manufacturing process
characterized by long production runs of
standardized parts.
Continuous-process production
 The
entire process is mechanized.
Automated machines control the
continuous process, and outcomes are
highly predictable.
Flexible Manufacturing Systems
 The
ultimate automated factories.
= Computer-integrated manufacturing
= Smart factories
= Advanced manufacturing technology
= Agile manufacturing
= The factory of the future
Three types
 Computer-aided
design (CAD)
 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
 Integrated information network
CAD
 Computers
are used to assist in the drafting,
design, and engineering of new parts.
CAM
 Computer
controlled machines in materials
handling, fabrication, production, and
assembly greatly increase the speed at
which items can be manufacturing.
Integrated information
network
A
computerized system links all aspects of
the firm- including accounting,
purchasing, marketing, inventory control,
design, production, and so forth.
Product life-cycle management
(PLM)
It can manage a product from idea through
development, manufacturing, testing, and
even maintenance in the field.
1. It stores data on ideas and products from all
parts of the company.
2. It links product design to all departments
involved in new product development.
3. It provides three dimensional images of
new products for testing and maintenance.

Lean Manufacturing
 It
uses highly trained employees at every
stage of the product process, who take a
painstaking approach to details and
problem solving to cut waste and improve
quality.
 Lean
manufacturing and flexible
manufacturing systems have paved the
way for mass customization.
Core organization service
technology
Service Firms
 Service
technologies are different from
manufacturing technologies and require
different organizational design
 Service organizations accomplish their
primary purpose through the production
and provision of services.
 Education, health care, transportation,
banking, and hospitality.
Difference between Manufacturing and
Service Technologies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Produce intangible output
Are characterized by simultaneous production
and consumption.
Labor and knowledge intensive
Direct interaction between customer and
employee
Human capital is extremely important
Quality of service is perceived and cannot be
directly measured
Rapid response time
Site selection is much more important.
New directions in Service
 Customized
output
 Customer expectations are rising
 Lean principle : Cut waste, Improve
customer service
Structural Characteristics of Service
Organizations versus Product Organizations
Designing the Service
Organization
 Service
organizations are not necessarily
large
 Small locations, close to customers
 Require technical core employees
 Employees need social and interpersonal
skills as well as technical skills
 Decision making is decentralized
 Low formalization.
Non-Core Departmental
Technology
 Each
department in an organization has a
production process that consist of a distinct
technology.
 Variety : frequency of unexpected and novel
events
 Variety in departments can range from repeating a
single act to working on a series of unrelated
problems.
 Analyzability : ability to apply standard procedures
Framework for Department
Technologies
Workflow Interdependence
Interdependence
 The
extent to which departments depend on each
other for information, resources or materials to
accomplish their tasks.
 Low
interdependence means that departments
can do their work independently
High interdependence means departments
depend on each other and must constantly
exchange resources.
Types of interdependence(Thompson)
Structural Implications
Coordination for Interdependence
Impact of Technology on Job Design
Job Design
 the assignment of goals and tasks to be
accomplished
by employees
Job Simplification
 the variety and difficulty of tasks performed
by a single person are reduced
Job Rotation
 moving employees from job to job to give
them a great variety of tasks
Impact of Technology on Job Design
Job Enrichment
 designing a job to provide greater
responsibility, recognition, and opportunities
for growth and development
Job Enlargement
 an expansion of the number of different tasks
performed by an employee in a job
Sociotechnical Systems Model
 an
approach that combines the needs of
people with the organization’s need for
technical efficiency.
• Story began in 1971.
• 18,000 retail stores in 60 countries.
Starbucks Mission
Mission: to inspire and nurture the human spirit
– one person, one cup and one
neighborhood at a time.
Starbucks Definition of lean
Delivering the most value from
the
Customer’s perspective
While consuming the
fewest possible resources
By leveraging the
talents and idea of partners.
Starbucks Lean Vision
Increased Customer Value &
A Culture of Problem Solvers
Future
Lean as a System
-Integrated into how we work and lead
- Innovation pipeline
- Continuous improvement
2012
2010
2009
2008
A Standard Way of Working
- Routines
- Capability
- Process improvement
Build the Foundation
- Lean team
- Key concepts
Starbucks lean team (globally and cross )
• developing leaders to empower continuous
improvement as the way to lead and work.
• To accomplish this
to integrate Lean into
1. employee training
2. operational programs
3. store design and work processes.
• Member do a variety of different things
1. Some work in an improvement lab
2. Some develop curriculum and coaching
Lean Innovation Lab
Lean Innovation Lab
Deployment
Principle
Stabilize the Work
Houston; We have
a problem!
Prepare For
Change
2008
A system of Work
Back to Basic
Lean Innovation Lab
Improved Customer
Experience
• Create value
Customer • Quality
Partner
More Engaged Partners
• Burdensome work
• Mentally engaged
Business
Improved Business
• Waste
• Sales/ Transaction
• Capacitily
Lean Innovation Lab
Learn from our Partners:
• Leverage the insights and creativity of our partners to drive
improvement
• Bring together cross functional teams to solve problems
Develop testable hypotheses :
•Cheap, Creative, Flexible
Make the work visible / demonstrate work:
• Platform to exhibit innovation
• Influence other groups/work
• Gain support
• Influence Lean as the way we work in our stores
Point of use- flavor syrups
Small lot production
moved
closer
to espresso machine
-fresh batch brewed
every
8min
Point
of coding-coffee
use – coffee urns
moved
Color
Brewing
tomatches
front counter
to containers
prevent
pouring
baristas turning their backs in
customers
Experienced Based Learning and
Teaching: A Recipe For Success
Leveraging TWI to achieve goal
Work Routine Structure
An organizing tool for the teacher – not for handing over to the
learner
•Major Steps
A logical segment of the work that advances the process
Not meant to be a complete time motion study
•Key Points
Anything that might…
• Make or break the job.
• Injure the partner (safety factors are always key
points).
• Make the work easier to do.
• Most parts of the job are quite easy to learn
– but 5% to 10% are difficult or tricky
•Reasons Why
Explains the “why” behind each Key Point
Starbucks Teaching Model – Four
Steps
1. Prepare
2. Present – twice
-Major steps
-Major steps + key points + reasons why
3. Practice – three times Silent demonstration only
-Verbalizing and demonstrating major steps
-Verbalizing and demonstrating major steps,
-key points and reasons why
4. Follow-up
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mdewPUKAhMY&list=SP17809C849
2698B5A
Result
Where Starbucks are going
•Becoming a learning organization requires
embracing asking questions as part of our culture

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