Introduction to Field Programmable Gate Arrays

Report
INTRODUCTION TO FIELD
PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS
(FPGAS)
Bill Jason P. Tomas
Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Nevada Las Vegas
FIELD PROGRAMMABLE ARRAYS
Dominant digital design implementation
 Ability to re-configure FPGA to implement any
digital logic function


Partial re-configuration allows a portion of the FPGA
to be continuously running while another portion is
being re-configured
FPGAs also contain analog circuitry features
including a programmable slew rate and drive
strength, differential comparators on I/O
designed to be connected to differential signaling
channels.
 Mixed-signal FPGAs contains ADCs and DACs
with analog signal conditional blocks allowing
them to operate as a system-on-chip (SoC)

FPGA ARCHITECTURES

Early FPGAs

N x N array of unit cells (CLB + routing)


Special routing along center axis
Next Generation FPGAs
M x N unit cells
 Small block RAMs around edges


More recent FPGAs
Added block RAM arrays
 Added multiplier cores
 Adders processor cores

FPGA ARCHITECTURE TRENDS

Memories
Single & Dual-port RAMS
 FIFO (first-in first-out)
 ECC (error correcting codes)


Digital Signal Processors
Multipliers
 Accumulators
 Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs)


Embedded Processors

Hardcore (dedicated processors)



Dedicated program and data memories
Programmable RAM in FPGA can be used in conjunction with
the processor to provide program and data memories
Soft core (synthesized from a HDL)
BASIC FPGA ARCHITECTURE
•More recent FPGA architectures have small block RAM arrays (usually
placed in center column), multipliers, processor cores, DSP cores w/
multipliers, and I/O cells along columns for BGAs.
FPGA OPERATION
User writes configuration memory
which defines the function of the
system. This includes: the connectivity
between the CLBs and the I/O cells, the
logic to be implemented onto the CLBs,
and the I/O blocks.
By changing the data in the
configuration memory, the function of
the system changes as well. This change
in data can be implemented at anytime
during FPGA operation (run-time
configuration).
CONFIGURABLE LOGIC BLOCKS (CLBS)
ARCHITECTURE

CLBs consist of:

Look-up Tables (LUT) which implement the entries of a logic
functions truth table


Carry and Control Logic



Some FPGAs can use LUTs to implement small Random Access
Memory (RAM)
Implements fast arithmetic operations (adders/ subtractors)
Can be alsoconfigured for additional operations (Built-in-Self Test
iterative-OR chain)
Memory Elements


Configurable Flip Flops (FFs)/ Latches( Programmable clock edges,
set/reset, and clock enable)
These memory elements usually can be configured as shiftregisters
CONFIGURABLE LOGIC BLOCKS
A CLB can contain
several slices, which
make up a single CLB.
Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGAs
(right) have two slices:
SLICEL (logic) and
SLICEM (memory).
In addition to the basic
CLB architecture, the
Virtex-5 contains widefunction MUXs which
can implement:
- 4:1 MUX using 1 LUT
- 8:1 MUX using 2 LUTs
- 16:1 MUX using 4
LUTs
LOOK-UP TABLES (2:1 MUX EXAMPLE)
Configuration memory holds output of truth table
entries
 Internal signals connect to control signals of
MUXs to select a values of the truth tables for
any given input signals

LUT BASED RAM
Normal LUT mode
performs read
operation
 Address decoders
with WE
generates clock
signals to latches
for write operation
 Smaller RAMs can
be combined to
create larger
RAMs (up to 64bit in Virtex-5)

FPGA PROGRAMMABLE
INTERCONNECTION NETWORK



Horizontal and vertical mesh of wire segments interconnected by
programmable switches called programmable interconnect points (PIPs).
These PIPs are implemented using a transmission gate controlled by a
memory bits from the configuration memory.
Consists of global routing connecting PLBs to I/O buffers, non-adjacent
PLBs, and other embedded components. Local routing connects PLBs to
other adjacent PLBs and PLBs to global routing (done through a switch
matrix)
Several types of PIPs are used





Cross-point = connects vertical or horizontal wire segments allowing turns
Breakpoint = connects or isolates 2 wire segments
Decoded MUX = group of 2^n cross-points connected to a single output configure by n configuration
bits
Non-decoded MUX = n wire segments each with a configuration bit (n segments)
Compound cross-point = 6 Break-point PIPS (can isolate two isolated signal nets)
PROGAMMABLE INPUT/OUTPUT CELLS

Bi-directional Buffers
Programmable for inputs or outputs
 Tri-state controls bi-directional operation
 Pull-up/down resistors
 FFs/ Latches are used to improve timing issues

Set-up and hold times
 Clock-to-out delay


Routing Resources


Connections to core of array
Programmable I/O voltage and current levels
Boundary Scan Access
FPGA CONFIGURATION INTERFACES

Master (Serial or Parallel)


FPGA retrieves configuration from ROM at initial
power-up
Slave (Serial or Parallel)
FPGA configured by an external source (i.e
microprocessor/ other FPGA)
 Used for dynamic partial re-configuration


Boundary Scan
4-wire IEEE standard serial interface used for
testing
 Write and read access to configuration memory
 Interfaces to FPGA core internal routing network

BOUNDARY SCAN CONFIGURATION
Multi-FPGA Emulation Framework
to support NoC design and
verification (UNLV NSIL)
Developed to test
interconnect between
chips on PCB
Test Access Point
(TAP) controller
composed of 16
state FSM
Daisy Chain
Configuration
FPGA CONFIGURATION TECHNIQUES

Full configuration and readback

Simple configuration interface



Larger FPGAs have a longer download time
Compressed configuration

Requires multiple frame write capability



Identical frames of configuration data are written to multiple
frame addresses
Extension of partial re-configuration interface capabilities


Automatic internal calculation of frame address
Frame address is much smaller than frame of configuration
data
Reduces download time for initial configuration depending
on regularity of system function and the array percent that
is utilized
Partial re-configuration and readback

Only change portions of configuration memory with respect
to reference design

Reduces download time for re-configuration
XILINX VIRTEX-5 FPGAS
Multi-FPGA-based emulation framework for NoC design and
verification (UNLV Networking and System Integration
Laboratory)
VIRTEX-5 FPGA PLATFORMS
Five Virtex-5 Platforms
1. LX- general logic
applications
2. LXT- logic with advanced
serial connectivity
3. SXT-signal processing
applications with advanced
serial connectivity
4. TXT- high performance
systems with double density
advanced serial connectivity
5. FXT- high performance
embedded systems with
advanced serial connectivity
•Over 320,000 PLBs on the largest
Virtex-5
•ExpressFabric interconnect sturcture
and 12 levels of metal interconnect
allowing implementation of complex logic
functions allowing connections to
neighboring PLBs in few hops than
Virtex-4
•Each PLB contains 8 LUTs, 8
configurable memory elements (can be
configured as RAM/ ROM/ shift register)
•Enhanced DSP functions on 25 x 18-bit
multipliers (ability to be cascaded)
•Clock managments contain one PLLC
and two managers which can drive global
VIRTEX-5 CLB
A single CLB in Virtex-5 consists of two slices:
SLICEL (logic) and SLICEM (memory). Each
CLB is connected to a switch matrix which can
access to a general routing (global) matrix.
Every slice contains four
LUTS, wide function MUXs,
carry logic, and configurable
memory elements. SLICEM
support storing data using
distributed RAM and data
shifting with 32-bit shift
registers
SLICEL
SLICEM
FPGA DESIGN COMPARISON VIRTEX-5,
VIRTEX-6, AND SPARTAN 6
Virtex-6 CLB have the same setup
as Virtex-5 (SLICEL & SLICEM)
Virtex-6 devices add four
additional storage elements which
can only be configured as edgetriggered D-FFs. The D inputs are
driven by the output of the LUTs or
bypass slice inputs AX-DX
FPGA DESIGN COMPARISON VIRTEX-5,
VIRTEX-6, AND SPARTAN 6
Spartan-6 CLB columns are
separated into two columns: 1
column for a new SLICEX and 1
column for alternating SLICEL
and SLICEM. SLICEX is a basic
CLB without any carry logic
added
BACK TO VIRTEX-5 CLB LUT
Up to 207, 360 LUTs (6-input) with greater than
13 million configuration bits.
 Can be configured as dual-output 5-input LUTs.
In single 6-input LUT, O6 is the primary output.

Inputs to LUT 2
LUT 1
Inputs to LUT 1 &
Select Lines
LUT 2
Output
MUX (A6)
Output
A5
LUT SCHEMATIC SIMULATION
Logical AND
Logical OR
VIRTEX-5 PROGRAMMABLE I/O
The I/O cells in Virtex-5 have output logic
blocks (OLOGIC) , input logic blocks (ILOGIC),
I/O delays blocks, and a bidirectional I/O
buffer.
OLOGIC implements registers to improve
system clock-to-output timing and supports
single data-rate (SDR) and double data-rate
(DDR) reception of data. It can also perform
parallel-to-serial conversion of output data (2
& 6 bits) in Serial/De-serializer (SerDes) mode.
Two I/O cells are grouped to form a
single I/O tile. In master/slave
mode, two I/O cells in the same I/O
tile are connected via dedicated
shift routing to support larger data
widths.
ILOGIC implements registers to improve setup and hold times and support SDR and DDR
transmission of data. It can perform serial-toparallel conversion of input data(2 & 6 bits)
when in SerDes mode.
VIRTEX-5 PROGRAMMABLE I/O
FPGA PROGRAMMABLE
INTERCONNECTION NETWORK



Horizontal and vertical mesh of wire segments interconnected by
programmable switches called programmable interconnect points (PIPs).
These PIPs are implemented using a transmission gate controlled by a
memory bits from the configuration memory.
Consists of global routing connecting PLBs to I/O buffers, non-adjacent
PLBs, and other embedded components. Local routing connects PLBs to
other adjacent PLBs and PLBs to global routing (done through a switch
matrix)
Several types of PIPs are used





Cross-point = connects vertical or horizontal wire segments allowing turns
Breakpoint = connects or isolates 2 wire segments
Decoded MUX = group of 2^n cross-points connected to a single output configure by n configuration
bits
Non-decoded MUX = n wire segments each with a configuration bit (n segments)
Compound cross-point = 6 Break-point PIPS (can isolate two isolated signal nets)
VIRTEX-5 FPGA INTERCONNECTION
NETWORK

Global routing consists of



Long Lines= routing has three connections: beginning,
middle, and end. Double lines have five connections into a
switch matrix between beginning and end, and can source
in all four directions of the FPGA from a switch matrix.
Every direction has 10 BEGs, MIDs, and ENDs (all bidirectional) for a total of 240 wire segments per switch
matrix. Spans 24 rows/columns of components with a
switch matrix connection at every sixth component
Double Lines= resources span three columns/rows of
components, with a connection to the switch matrix for
each component.
Hex lines = three connections into a switch matrix similar
to long lines. Source in all four directions from switch
matrix. Spans six rows or columns of components
VIRTEX-5 FPGA INTERCONNECTION NETWORK
PIPs
HANDS ON DEMONSTRATION
FUTURE FPGA DEVELOPEMENT
Moore’s law states
that the number of
transistors on a IC
circuit doubles
every two years.
How to continue
with the trend
stated by Moore??
3D Integrated
Circuitry
2D INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
Metal layer 6
Metal layer 3
Metal layer 2
Metal layer 1
Active device layer
Si Substrate
TRANSISTORS NO LONGER DOMINATE,
METAL INTERCONNECTIONS TOOK OVER
DESIGN COSTS INCREASE AS TECHNOLOGY GETS SMALLER
IC DESIGNS DECREASE
FPGAS SEE DIMINISHING BENEFITS WITH
SCALING
90% of FPGA logic area is programmable
interconnect
 Performance and power penalty are direct result
of the area (70% Virtex-2)
 Interconnect needs to increase faster than
number of gates to keep up (Rents rule)

10%
Interconnect
14%
Logic
Clocking
16%
60%
Dynamic Power in Virtex-2 (Shang
FPGA’02)
IOB
CROSS-TALK INCREASE AS TECHNOLOGY
GETS SMALLER
3D INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
•More functionality in a smaller space  extends Moore’s Law
•More transistors in a package  larger designs
•Shorter Interconnects  less RC delays  better chip performance
•Power Decrease  shorter wires reduce power consumption by producing
less capacitance (also less inductance)
•Bandwith large number of vertial vias between layers allow construction
of wide bandwidth buses between functional blocks in different layers
3D INTEGRATE CIRCUIT
Metal layers
Device layer 2
Metal layers
Device layer 1
Si Substrate
Young-Su KWON (MIT) 2005
NUPGA® ARCHITECTURE ( ACHIEVE SAME
DENSITIES AS AN ASIC DESIGN?
Uses a graphite-based memory process for creating reprogrammable
memory elements, which is now being used as anti-fuses for 3D FPGAs.
Anti-fuses start as an open circuit, but can be reprogrammed to create a
low-resistance with a high voltage. Since the anti-fuses lay above the logic,
the interconnection density can rival ASICs.  The problem is that high
voltage programming transistors take up a lot of area negating the density
boost. NuPGA claims they have solved that problem by burying the
programmable transistors in a 3D foundation layer beneath the FPGA
QUESTIONS?

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