analogy - Arrowhead High School

Report
The Catcher
in the Rye
Literature Terms
ANALOGY
Definition:
An analogy clarifies or explains an
ABSTRACT concept or object by comparing
it to something which is CONCRETE.
In other words . . .
An analogy often compares something that CANNOT be
touched to something that CAN be touched.
ANALOGY
EXAMPLE:
“Knowledge always desires increase: it is
like fire, which must first be kindled by
some external agent, but which will
afterwards propagate itself.”
Samuel Johnson
What is the abstract
concept?
What is the concrete
concept?
ANALOGY
What analogy do Holden and Mr. Spencer discuss in
Chapter 2 of The Catcher in the Rye?
“Life is a game, boy. Life is a
game that one plays according
to the rules.”
What is the abstract concept?
What is the concrete concept?
ANALOGY
What other analogies do you
know?
Ms. Singletary’s favorite:
Life is like a box of chocolates.
You never know what you’re
gonna get.
HYPERBOLE
Definition:
An extreme exaggeration for literary effect
that is not meant to be interpreted literally.
HYPERBOLE
Can you think of any
hyperboles for when you . . .
Singletary’s Faves
Are hungry?
I am so hungry I could
eat a horse!
Do something a lot?
I’ve watched CSI like, a
thousand times!
HYPERBOLE
Are in
love?
I’d walk to the ends of the
earth for you!
HYPERBOLE
What hyperboles can you find in The Catcher in the
Rye?
(Hint: There is a hyperbole on every page.)
EXAMPLES:
“. . . Edgar Marsalla laid this terrific fart . . . He damn
near blew the roof off” (p. 17).
“There was a shower right between every two rooms
in our wing, and about eighty-five times a day old
Ackley barged in on me” (p. 19).
IMAGERY
Definition:
Imagery is anything that affects or appeals to
the reader’s senses: sight, sound touch, taste,
or smell.
When discussing imagery in a piece of
literature, we are discussing a series of images
that relate to one another in a way that helps
to shape the meaning of the piece.
IMAGERY
EXAMPLE:
From “A Late Aubade”
Wait for a while, then slip downstairs
And bring us up some chilled white wine,
And some blue cheese, and crackers, and some fine
Ruddy-skinned pears.
By Richard Wilbur
Which words appeal to each of the five senses?
IMAGERY
EXAMPLE:
In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet , light and dark
images are described throughout the play to emphasize
all of the opposites.
What are some of the opposites in Romeo and Juliet?
Montague / Capulet
Lover / Enemy
Love / Hate
Life / Death
IMAGERY
EXAMPLE PASSAGES IN ROMEO AND JULIET:
“star-crossed lovers”
“O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
As a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear – “
What are the light and dark images in these passages?
IMAGERY
So, what imagery does J.D. Salinger use in
The Catcher in the Rye?
Battle
Death
Falling
What does Salinger want to emphasize with this imagery?
Holden’s constant struggle with authority.
Holden’s obsession with death.
Holden’s fear of death and change.
IMAGERY
Let’s look at some passages!
“…I was standing way the hell up on top of Thomsen Hill, right
next to this crazy cannon that was in the Revolutionary War and
all” (p. 2).
“…I felt like jumping off the washbowl and getting old Stradlater
in a half nelson. That’s a wrestling hold, in case you don’t know,
where you get the other guy around the neck and choke him to
death, if you feel like it” (p. 30).
“Some stupid guy had thrown peanut shells all over the stairs,
and I damn near broke my crazy neck” (p. 52).
What kind of imagery is prevalent in each passage?
IDIOM
Definition:
An idiom is an expression in which the
meaning is different from the meaning of the
individual words.
Singletary’s Trick:
I always think about how these expressions
probably sound idiotic (similar in spelling to
idiom) to people trying to learn our language.
EXAMPLES:
IDIOM
“I hope Adam Richman calls soon.
Just sitting around and waiting is
making me antsy.”
“I don’t have any special vacation plans.
I’m just going to take it easy.”
“You’re busy, so you’ll need
to keep an eye on the time.
Remember that we have
to leave at 4:30.”
IDIOM
What are some idioms in The Catcher in the Rye?
When Sally is talking with Holden, she tries to
impress him with all of the men who are interested in
her. She says a guy from Harvard was “rushing the
hell out of her” and a guy from West Point was
“cutting his throat over her”.
Later in the novel, when Holden is crying, Phoebe
tells him to stop, but Holden says he “couldn’t stop on
a goddam dime”.
What do these idioms mean?
HERO
What makes someone a HERO?
Who do you think are HEROES?
Definition:
A hero is a mythological or legendary figure
endowed with great strength and ability. A hero is
admired for his achievements and noble qualities.
He traditionally shows great courage.
HERO
A hero usually has these six characteristics:
Birth shrouded in mystery.
Education is unique.
Special powers or abilities.
Travels far from home. (Departure)
Adventures, trials, and challenges occur in his life.
Triumphs eventually. (Return)
(Initiation)
A hero or heroine is usually BEST AT one or many
things in his or her world.
Which characteristics of a hero does Holden have?
ANTI-HERO
Definition:
An anti-hero is a central character in
a work of literature who lacks the
traditional, idyllic qualities of a
classic hero.
ANTI-HERO
Anti-heroes usually have these characteristics:
1. Distrust conventional values.
2. Are unable to commit themselves to any
ideals.
3. Generally feel helpless in a world over
which they have no control.
4. Often accept and celebrate their positions
as social-outcasts.
ANTI-HERO
So why are central characters in modern literature
typically anti-heroes?
Why are they so appealing?
They reflect the reality of human nature.
We are flawed and so are the true heroes
amongst us.
Therefore, the anti-hero is much easier
to relate to!
THEME
Definition:
The central idea of a literary work.
THEME
Themes are often explained in one word . . .
Love is the theme.
. . . But when writing about a theme, you need to be more
specific. Describe what is learned about this theme in a
complete sentence.
As shown in the novel, love is like a
rollercoaster; it always has its ups and downs.
Where in short answer response does this sentence usually
exist?
THEME
What are some of the central ideas in The Catcher in the
Rye?
For now let’s just describe the various ideas in one word . . .
Change
Growing Up
Loneliness
Being Judgmental
Control
Mistakes
Acceptance
THEME
PRACTICE!!!!
Prompt: Describe one theme from Catcher in the Rye and why that
theme is important to understanding the story.
As practice… write a Main Idea sentence for (1) of the
themes discussed. Make sure it is specific (BECAUSE!!!).
Treat this as practice for the Short Answer Exam.

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