The Catcher in the Rye Literature Terms ANALOGY Definition: An analogy clarifies or explains an ABSTRACT concept or object by comparing it to something which is CONCRETE. In other words . . . An analogy often compares something that CANNOT be touched to something that CAN be touched. ANALOGY EXAMPLE: “Knowledge always desires increase: it is like fire, which must first be kindled by some external agent, but which will afterwards propagate itself.” Samuel Johnson What is the abstract concept? What is the concrete concept? ANALOGY What analogy do Holden and Mr. Spencer discuss in Chapter 2 of The Catcher in the Rye? “Life is a game, boy. Life is a game that one plays according to the rules.” What is the abstract concept? What is the concrete concept? ANALOGY What other analogies do you know? Ms. Singletary’s favorite: Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re gonna get. HYPERBOLE Definition: An extreme exaggeration for literary effect that is not meant to be interpreted literally. HYPERBOLE Can you think of any hyperboles for when you . . . Singletary’s Faves Are hungry? I am so hungry I could eat a horse! Do something a lot? I’ve watched CSI like, a thousand times! HYPERBOLE Are in love? I’d walk to the ends of the earth for you! HYPERBOLE What hyperboles can you find in The Catcher in the Rye? (Hint: There is a hyperbole on every page.) EXAMPLES: “. . . Edgar Marsalla laid this terrific fart . . . He damn near blew the roof off” (p. 17). “There was a shower right between every two rooms in our wing, and about eighty-five times a day old Ackley barged in on me” (p. 19). IMAGERY Definition: Imagery is anything that affects or appeals to the reader’s senses: sight, sound touch, taste, or smell. When discussing imagery in a piece of literature, we are discussing a series of images that relate to one another in a way that helps to shape the meaning of the piece. IMAGERY EXAMPLE: From “A Late Aubade” Wait for a while, then slip downstairs And bring us up some chilled white wine, And some blue cheese, and crackers, and some fine Ruddy-skinned pears. By Richard Wilbur Which words appeal to each of the five senses? IMAGERY EXAMPLE: In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet , light and dark images are described throughout the play to emphasize all of the opposites. What are some of the opposites in Romeo and Juliet? Montague / Capulet Lover / Enemy Love / Hate Life / Death IMAGERY EXAMPLE PASSAGES IN ROMEO AND JULIET: “star-crossed lovers” “O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night As a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear – “ What are the light and dark images in these passages? IMAGERY So, what imagery does J.D. Salinger use in The Catcher in the Rye? Battle Death Falling What does Salinger want to emphasize with this imagery? Holden’s constant struggle with authority. Holden’s obsession with death. Holden’s fear of death and change. IMAGERY Let’s look at some passages! “…I was standing way the hell up on top of Thomsen Hill, right next to this crazy cannon that was in the Revolutionary War and all” (p. 2). “…I felt like jumping off the washbowl and getting old Stradlater in a half nelson. That’s a wrestling hold, in case you don’t know, where you get the other guy around the neck and choke him to death, if you feel like it” (p. 30). “Some stupid guy had thrown peanut shells all over the stairs, and I damn near broke my crazy neck” (p. 52). What kind of imagery is prevalent in each passage? IDIOM Definition: An idiom is an expression in which the meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words. Singletary’s Trick: I always think about how these expressions probably sound idiotic (similar in spelling to idiom) to people trying to learn our language. EXAMPLES: IDIOM “I hope Adam Richman calls soon. Just sitting around and waiting is making me antsy.” “I don’t have any special vacation plans. I’m just going to take it easy.” “You’re busy, so you’ll need to keep an eye on the time. Remember that we have to leave at 4:30.” IDIOM What are some idioms in The Catcher in the Rye? When Sally is talking with Holden, she tries to impress him with all of the men who are interested in her. She says a guy from Harvard was “rushing the hell out of her” and a guy from West Point was “cutting his throat over her”. Later in the novel, when Holden is crying, Phoebe tells him to stop, but Holden says he “couldn’t stop on a goddam dime”. What do these idioms mean? HERO What makes someone a HERO? Who do you think are HEROES? Definition: A hero is a mythological or legendary figure endowed with great strength and ability. A hero is admired for his achievements and noble qualities. He traditionally shows great courage. HERO A hero usually has these six characteristics: Birth shrouded in mystery. Education is unique. Special powers or abilities. Travels far from home. (Departure) Adventures, trials, and challenges occur in his life. Triumphs eventually. (Return) (Initiation) A hero or heroine is usually BEST AT one or many things in his or her world. Which characteristics of a hero does Holden have? ANTI-HERO Definition: An anti-hero is a central character in a work of literature who lacks the traditional, idyllic qualities of a classic hero. ANTI-HERO Anti-heroes usually have these characteristics: 1. Distrust conventional values. 2. Are unable to commit themselves to any ideals. 3. Generally feel helpless in a world over which they have no control. 4. Often accept and celebrate their positions as social-outcasts. ANTI-HERO So why are central characters in modern literature typically anti-heroes? Why are they so appealing? They reflect the reality of human nature. We are flawed and so are the true heroes amongst us. Therefore, the anti-hero is much easier to relate to! THEME Definition: The central idea of a literary work. THEME Themes are often explained in one word . . . Love is the theme. . . . But when writing about a theme, you need to be more specific. Describe what is learned about this theme in a complete sentence. As shown in the novel, love is like a rollercoaster; it always has its ups and downs. Where in short answer response does this sentence usually exist? THEME What are some of the central ideas in The Catcher in the Rye? For now let’s just describe the various ideas in one word . . . Change Growing Up Loneliness Being Judgmental Control Mistakes Acceptance THEME PRACTICE!!!! Prompt: Describe one theme from Catcher in the Rye and why that theme is important to understanding the story. As practice… write a Main Idea sentence for (1) of the themes discussed. Make sure it is specific (BECAUSE!!!). Treat this as practice for the Short Answer Exam.