What a PCB inventory is

Report
Carlo Lupi
[email protected]
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
The PCB inventory has three purposes:

MANAGEMENT

TRACEABILITY

EMERGENCY RESPONSE
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
A PCBs inventory should consist
in:
• An organized and dynamic list of all the
PCBs contaminated equipment, wastes
and sites
• A system for PCBs inventory data
management
• Rules and procedures for adding or
deleting items from the inventory and
for reporting
• A dedicated administrative structure
with personnel and responsibilities
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Following the Stockholm convention, the PCB inventory should include
all the equipment with internal volume greater than 5Liters and PCBs
concentration greater than 50 ppm.
In order to improve the usefulness of the PCB inventory, other items can
be added: PCBs wastes, PCBs contaminated sites, equipment with
internal volume < than 5 Liters.
Other concentration limits (in any case below 50 ppm) could be
considered for inclusion in the PCB inventory
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Equipment which has been definitively proven to have a PCBs
concentration < 50 ppm (or a lower limit selected by the
authority) should not be included in the PCBs inventory
Wastes with a PCBs concentration which has been definitively
proven to be < 50 ppm (or a lower limit selected by the
authority) should not be included in the PCBs inventory.
A decision must be made on PCB contaminated soil.
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
 Announcement
effect and miscomunication
 Lacking of clear rules for PCB owners
 Unrealistic objectives and timeframe
 Lacking of a sound inventory plan
 Economic interest of PCB owners (disposal cost,
missed revenues for scrapped material)
 Technical issues
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
If data are lacking, (i.e., equipment is not classified as PCB
free or has not been tested), the equipment must be
considered as PCB contaminated.
If equipment has been tested for PCB and/or it is certified
as PCB free following international accepted
methodologies, it should not be includede in the inventory.
• (UNEP, Guidelines for the identification of PCBS and materials containing
PCBs, 1999)
• UNEP document “PCB Transformers and Capacitors: From Management to
Reclassification and Disposal, may 2002
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Transformers do
not need to be
immediately
decontaminated
or disposed if:
• They are in a good working condition
without any symptom of leaking
• They are not located in sensitive
sites.
HOWEVER
• PCBs equipment MUST be included in
the inventory!
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Gather list of relevant industries
• By consumption (i.e. electric contracts > 100 KW)  needs EVN support
• By production and number of workers (i.e. industries with more than 100 workers)
 needs Central and Local chamber of commerce support
Arrange telephone survey
• Perform simple telephone survey (do not ask for “PCB equipment” but only for
“equipment”); ask also for any equipment requiring hydraulic and heat transfer oil
and oil storage.
• Follow up with more detailed survey with industries which have that equipment.
Arrange site surveys and sampling plan
• Training and establishment of a network
• Collect and process samples
• Perform site surveys
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Site Record info
Information about
the company
Site Contact and
Address Information
Site code
Date
Inspector
Company name
Company type (NIC-2008)
Public / Private
Headquarter address
State
Site address
Geo ref. (°)
Location features
Contact person name
Contact position
Phone
Fax
Email
Number of Staff at the site
Number of Transformers
Number of Capacitors
(to be repeated in form “B” and “C”)
*
*
*
Number of other equipment
Site Information
Electricity Consumption at site (KWh)
PCB Elimination plan?
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Site Code
Equipment
identification
Label Code
Name of the Manufacturer
Country of origin
Equipment Type
Serial Number
Power rating
High Voltage (V)
Low Voltage (V)
Manufacturing date
(the same as A)
(univocal code for each equipment, to be
placed on the label)
*
Equipment weight, including dielectric oil
(Kg)
Oil Weight (Kg)
Trade name of the dielectric oil or
insulating oil
Equipment
description
PCB content in the liquid (ppm)
PCB analysis performed
Information source
*
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Operational status
*
Condition of the equipment
*
Storage
*
Retrofilled (Y/N)
*
Retrofilling date
Retrofilling liquid
Equipment condition
Maintenance company
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Site Code
(the same as A)
Type of Waste including Basel code and
Indian Waste Classification code
Estimated quantity (kg)
Packaging modality
*
Are containers leak proof ?
PCBs
Waste identification
Storage conditions.
*
Geographical coordinates
Site Name
Land use of the site and of the
surroundings
Monitoring report if available (attach
documents)
Cleanup plan if available (attach
documents)
PCB contaminated Site
identification
Cleanup report if available (attach
documents)
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Step up
transformers
Power plants
Distribution
transformers
Power plants, transformer substation,
electricity distribution network, large
industrial plants, railways, large
ships, hospitals
Power
capacitors
Electricity distribution network, large
industrial plants
A closed application is defined as “an
application in which the PCBs are held
completely within the equipment”. In
normal condition, therefore, the
exposure of the environment or
humans to PCBs contained in closed
application is null. However, exposure
may occur in circumstances like
maintenance operations, and damage
of the equipment due to the aging of
the equipment or misuse.
Lighting ballasts Offices, large building, hospitals
Switches
Transformer substations, electricity
distribution network, large industrial
plants, railways, large ships
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Heat
transfer
fluids
Hydraulic
fluids
Chemical industry; petroleum
refineries.
Any industrial process
requiring hydraulic fluids.
Mining equipment; ferrous
and non ferrous metal
industry.
Vacuum and Natural gas transfer
compressors substations and pipes; any
pumps
industrial facility requiring
large compressors or vacuum
pumps.
Partially closed applications are
heat transfer fluids and
hydraulic fluids. In partially
closed applications, PCBs is not
directly in contact with the
environment; however emission
to the environment may occur
in certain circumstances during
typical use, leading in some
cases to significant release
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Lubricants
Casting
waxes
Surface
coatings:
Immersion oil for microscopes;
brake linings; cutting oils;
lubricating oils
Pattern waxes for casting
Paints (including the ones used for
ship painting); surface treatment
for textiles; carbonless copy paper;
flame retardants;
Plasticizers Gasket sealers; filling materials;
PVC; rubber sealers
It is reported that PCBs has been
used as additive in paint, flame
retardant in surface coatings,
plasticizers in chlorine based
plastic and rubber like PVC and
neoprene. PCBs has been also used
as an additive to the paint of older
ships
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
In general, capacitors with an internal volume in the order
of one or more liters are used to compensate for the
inductive reactive power required by the electrical load.
Very often, capacitors can be found wherever there is:
• An intensive use of fluorescent lamps, like in the case of large buildings,
hospitals, railway stations, etc.;
• An intensive use of electrical motors, for instance in industry
manufacturing plants;
• A compensation system. Compensation systems in cabinets and electrical
panels can be identified by the presence of instruments for indicating
and adjusting cos (φ), as well as by the term "Compensation". Normally,
the capacitors can be found in a primary or secondary distribution panel
(cabinet) located in example in a basement or an ancillary room in a
transformer station or in another secure location of the company;
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Power capacitors can be therefore found in
• Buildings: Administrative buildings, Hospital, Museums,
Railway Stations, Shopping Centers and in general large
buildings (including the old buildings planned for
demolition)
• Workshops and Industrial Manufacturing;
• Wastewater treatment plants
• Power distribution and power distribution substations;
• Refrigeration facilities;
• Research institutions.
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
 All
industries connected with an high voltage
supply with their internal step-down systems
 Industries with high power contracts (for
instance > 100 kW)
 Large facilities (hospitals, commercial
centers, large hotels, universities)
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
An essential part of all investigations is that
evidence gathered be controlled.
 Sampling operations should to be supervised bY
an external observer. Right after sampling,
samples have to be sealed and the seal signed.
 Sample possession must be traceable from the
time the samples are collected until they are
analysed.
 a sample form must be signed each time a
sample is passed from an operator to another.

PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
 Before




starting the sampling it is crucial to check:
1) status of transformer (any rust, leakage, etc.)
2) suitable sampling points: valves, tanks, pipes
3) if enough space for sampling operations is available
4) general safety condition at the workplace
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
 Before




sampling:
Take photo of the transformer plate
Take note of relevant data
Wear PPE (personal protective equipment)
Be sure all the necessary equipment is in place
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
 Gloves
 Mask
 Glasses
 Helmet
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Labeling is something more than placing a sticker onto
an article
Labeling functions may include traceability
• to link articles to a database (with univocal codes);
• to ensure that operators and general public are informed
(including, for instance, emergency operators during an accident)
about the existence of PCB equipment in their factory, so that
they can adopt suitable management measures when needed;
• to enforce obligations on PCBs labeled equipment (for instance,
to “track” the status and movement of these equipment)
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
1. Target identification
2. Clear assignment of responsibilities
3. Clear establishment of rules
4. Selection of the information content
5. Printing and distributing labels
6. Building and mantaining the database
7. Enforcement
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
WARNING
This equipment contains
PCBs
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
The PCBs contained in this equipment is capable to cause cumulative
permanent effect to the organism and to severely contaminate the
environment. It is severely forbidden to open this equipment. If it is
necessary to open, move, replace or repair this equipment, call the
number 0091 – 11 – 123456789
In case of fire, leakage or any other emergency involving this equipment
contact immediatly the emergency number below .
EMERGENCY HOTLINE 0091 – 11 – 987654321
UNIVOCAL EQUIPMENT CODE: ABC123456789CAB
Data and info from PCB inventory worldwide
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013







China produced PCB from 1965 to 1980 (Shanghai, Suzhou, Xi’an)
The cumulated PCBs oil output was 7, 130 tons, of which PCB3
account for 6, 130 tons and PCB5 account for 1, 000 tons.
Very few PCB transformers found (7 over 1000 > 50 ppm)
China has produced about 500 000 capacitors using domestic PCBs
oil
About 15 000-25 000 sets of capacitors containing PCBs may be still
in service, but only 2, 027 sets have been verified.
The large majority of PCB capacitors has been buried, recycled or
resold.
Several PCB burial sites were lost.
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
 Due
of the situation, the PCB project in China has
been mainly a “PCB site cleanup” project
 Around 20 PCB sites treated in Zhejiang
 PCB soil treated in a thermal desorber
 PCB capacitors shredded and incinerated
 Pure PCB oil incinerated
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Centralized Sealed up in the cave
Site in Gansu Province
Site in the Beijing municipality
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Centralized underground sealed-up
Site in the Zhejiang Province,
Shaoxing City
辽宁锦州PCBs地下封存点
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PCBs capacitors stored
in warehouse
PCBs capacitors stored
in the open air
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Trial burn test 1 (PCB contaminated soil, PCB 1-2%)

PCDD/F 0.104 ngTEq/Nm3
Trial burn test 2 (PCB oil, PCB 20%)

PCDD/F 0.042 ngTEq/Nm3
Trial burn test 3 (PCB soil+capacitors, PCB 10%)


PCDD/F 0.080 ngTEq/Nm3
Minimize release of POPs from the whole process !!
Site cleanup
Transportation
and Storage
Final Disposal
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
In India, almost all the inventoried PCB equipment are
online. Most of them are pure PCB transformers
Pure PCB transformers
PCB oil wt (metric tons)
2000
N of
transf
1081
In use
1066
Stored
17
Transf. Weight
(metric tons)
5960
Transformers contaminated by PCB
Oil wt
N of transf
In use
Stored
Transf.
Weight
7120
436
405
0
20900
avg conc
19800
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
In India, a large number of pure - PCB transformers
were found in the iron and steel industry
Pure PCB transformers
PCB oil wt (metric tons)
971
N of transf
465
Transf. Weight (metric
tons)
2926
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
NIP Inventory
(2004):
Inventory
conducted during
the preparation
of GEF project
(summer 2011)
• over the 56 transformers sampled for
chlorine testing by means of disposable
screening test kits (50 ppm), 32 units
were found contaminated by PCBs.
• Over the 216 transformers tested with
the LX 2000, 95 were found
contaminated by PCBs
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
60
Number of transformers
50
40
30
20
10
0
PCB concentration (ppm)
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Regions: drafting of PCB
management plan
National Agency for the
Protection of the
Environment
IMELS
European
Commission
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PCB production around 28000 tons (most from Caffaro)
98.687 electrical devices contaminated by PCB of which 60% owned by
ENEL (National Electric Board)
79.468 devices with PCB conc. between 50 and 500 mg/kg
18.955 devices with PCB conc. > 500 mg/kg
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Regression analysis NDEV / REQEN
11
10
ln NDEV
9
8
7
6
5
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
ln REQEN
Northern regions, where the
consumption of electricity is higher,
have more PCB contaminated
equipment than the Southern regions
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
Regression analysis NDEV / REQEN
12
11
ln NDEV
10
9
8
7
6
7
8
9
ln REQEN
10
11
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013
The database of USA PCBs transformer still in use is available online
PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

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