ppt

Report
Processes and Schedulers
What is a Process
• Process: An execution stream and its associated state
• Execution Stream
– Set of instructions
– “Thread of control”
• Process State
– Hardware state
• Privilege level, segments, page tables
– OS State
• Priority, I/O Buffers, Heap, memory map
– Resource state
• I/O requests
• An abstraction to make it easier to program both OS and applications
– Encapsulate state into manageable unit
Programs and Processes
• A process is not a program
• Program: Static code and static data
Program
int foo() {
return 0;
}
int main() {
foo();
return 0;
}
Process
int foo() {
return 0;
}
int main() {
foo();
return 0;
}
Heap
Stack
Registers
• OS can host multiple processes of same program
– E.g. many users can run ‘ls’ at the same time
• Once program can invoke multiple processes
– E.g. make runs many processes to compile code
• No one-to-one mapping between programs and processes
Threads and Processes
• A process is different than a thread
– Conceptually (On Linux it is more complicated)
• Thread: Separate execution streams in same address space
– “Lightweight process”
Process
int foo() {
return 0;
}
int main() {
foo();
return 0;
}
Threads
Heap
Stack
Registers
int foo() {
return 0;
}
int main() {
foo();
return 0;
}
• Can have multiple threads within a process
Heap
Stack
Stack
Registers
Registers
System Classification
• Uniprogramming: Only one process at a time
– Examples: Original systems and older PC Oses
• DOS
– Advantages: Easier for OS designer
– Disadvantages: Terrible utilization, poor usability
• Multiprogramming: Multiple processes at a time
– Examples: Every modern OS you use
– Note: Multiprogramming is different from multiprocessing
• Multiprocessing: Systems with multiple processors
– Advantages: Better utilization and usability
– Disadvantages: Complex OS design
Multiprogramming
• OS requirements for multiprogramming
– Policy to determine process to run
– Mechanism to switch between processes
– Methods to protect processes from one another
• Memory management system
• Separation of policy and mechanism
– Recurring theme in OS design
– Policy: Decision maker based on some metric
• Scheduler
– Mechanism: Low level code that implements the decision
• Dispatcher/Context Switch
Multiprogramming and Memory
• Many OSes didn’t do a very good job of
combining these
• Early PC OSes didn’t protect memory
– MacOS and Windows
– Each process could access all of memory
• Same address space
• Basically a giant multithreaded environment
• All modern OSes not include memory map in PCB
– Processes cannot access each other memory
Dispatch Mechanism
• OS maintains list of all processes
• Each process has a mode
– Running: Executing on the CPU
– Ready: Waiting to execute on CPU
– Blocked: Waiting for I/O or synchronization with
another thread
• Dispatch Loop
while (1) {
run process for a while;
stop process and save its state;
load state of another process;
}
How does dispatcher gain control?
What execution state must be saved/restored?
How does dispatcher gain control?
• Must change from user to system mode
– Problem: Only one CPU, and CPU can only do one thing at a time
– A user process running means the dispatcher isn’t
• Two ways OS gains control
• Traps: Events caused by process execution
– System calls, page faults, Exceptions (segfault, etc)
• Hardware interrupts: Events external to process
– Typing at keyboard, network packet arrivals
– Control switch to OS via Interrupt Service Routine (ISR)
• How does OS guarantee it will regain control?
Approaches to dispatcher
• Option 1: Cooperative multitasking
– Trust process to invoke dispatcher
– Linux: Default for kernel code
• schedule()
– Disadvantage: A mistake in one part of the code can lock up entire
system
• Option 2: True multitasking
– Configure hardware to periodically invoke dispatcher
– Hardware generated timer interrupt
• Timer ISR invokes dispatcher
– Linux: Enabled for user processes
• 100-1000HZ
– Processes run for some multiple of timer “ticks” (interrupts)
• Process time slice
What state must be saved?
• OS must track state of processes
– On every trap/interrupt save process state in “process control block” (PCB)
• Why on every trap/interrupt?
• Data structure problem: How to manages all PCBs
• Information stored in PCB
– Execution state
• General registers, control registers, CPU flags, RSP, RIP, page tables
– OS state
• Memory map, heap space
– I/O status
• Open files and sockets
– Scheduling information
• Execution mode, priority
– Accounting information
• Owner, PID
– Plus lots more
Context Switch implementation
• Machine dependent code (Assembly!)
– Different for MIPS, ARM, x86, etc.
– Save process state to PCB
• Tricky: OS must save state without changing state
• Requires special hardware support
– Save process state on each trap/interrupt
– Very nasty
• x86 has TSS (PCB) that most OSes avoid
Process Creation
• Two ways to create a process
– Build one from scratch
– Clone an existing one
• Option 1: From scratch (Windows – CreateProcess(…))
–
–
–
–
Load specified code and data into memory
Create empty call stack
Create and initialize PCB (make it look like a context switch)
Add process to ready list
• Option 2: Cloning (UNIX – fork())
– Stop current process and save its state
– Copy code, data, stack and PCB
– Add new Process PCB to ready list
– Do we really need to copy everything?
Creating a process
(Windows and UNIX)
Windows
BOOL WINAPI CreateProcess( _In_opt_
_Inout_opt_
_In_opt_
_In_opt_
_In_
_In_
_In_opt_
_In_opt_
_In_
_Out_
LPCTSTR lpApplicationName,
LPTSTR lpCommandLine,
LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpProcessAttributes,
LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpThreadAttributes,
BOOL bInheritHandles,
DWORD dwCreationFlags,
LPVOID lpEnvironment,
LPCTSTR lpCurrentDirectory,
LPSTARTUPINFO lpStartupInfo,
LPPROCESS_INFORMATION lpProcessInformation );
UNIX
int fork();
Creating processes in UNIX
• Combination of fork() and exec(…)
– fork(): Clone current process
– exec(…): copy new program on top of current process
int main() {
int pid;
char * cmd = “/bin/sh”;
pid = fork();
if (pid == 0) {
// child process
exec(cmd);
// exec does not return, WE NEVER GET HERE
} else {
// parent process – wait for child to finish
wait(pid);
}
}
• Advantage: Flexible, clean, simple
Process Abstraction
• Processes are a low level component
– Provide an abstraction to build on
• Fundamental OS design
– Provide abstract units (resources) that high level policies
can act on
• Resources
– Resources are high level units managed by OS
– CPU time, memory, disk space, I/O bandwidth
• How does the OS manage resources?
Resources
• Preemptible
– Resource can be taken away and used by somebody else
– Example: CPU
• Non-preemptible
– One a resource is assigned it can only be returned
voluntarily
– Example: Disk space
• OS must balance set of resources and requests for
those resources
– OS management depends on type of resource
Decisions about Resources
• Allocation: Which process gets which resource
–
–
–
–
Which resources should each process get?
Space sharing: Control concurrent access to resource
Implication: Resources are not easily preemptible
Example: disk space
• Scheduling: How long process keeps resource
–
–
–
–
In which order should requests be serviced
Time sharing: More resources requested than exist
Implication: Resource is preemtible
Example: CPU time
Role of Dispatcher vs. Scheduler
• Dispatcher
– Low-level mechanism
– Responsibility: Context-switch
•
•
•
•
•
•
Change mode of old process to either WAITING or BLOCKED
Save execution state of old process in PCB
Load state of new process from PCB
Change mode of new processes to RUNNING
Switch to user mode privilege
Jump to process instruction
• Scheduler
– Higher level policy
– Responsibility: Decide which process to dispatch to
• CPU could be allocated
– Parallel and Distributed Systems
Scheduling Performance Metrics
• Minimize response time
– Increase interactivity (responsiveness of user
interfaces)
• Maximize resource utilization
– Keep CPU and disks busy
• Minimize overhead
– Reduce context switches (number and cost)
• Distributed resources fairly
– Give each user/process same percentage of CPU
Scheduling Algorithms
• Process (job) model
– Process alternates between CPU and I/O bursts
– CPU bound job: long CPU bursts
– I/O bound job: short CPU bursts
• Don’t know before execution
– Need to handle full range of possible workloads
• Scheduling Algorithms
–
–
–
–
–
First-Come-First-Served (FCFS)
Shortest Job First (SJF) or Shortest-Time-Completion-First (STCF)
Round-Robin (RR)
Priority Scheduling
Other scheduling algorithms that are actually used
First Come First Served (FCFS)
• Simplest Scheduling algorithm
– First job that requests CPU is allocated CPU
– Nonpreemptive
• Advantage: Simple Implementation with FIFO queue
• Disadvantage: Response time depends on arrival order
– Unfair to later jobs (especially if the system has long jobs)
Job A
CPU
Job B
Time
• Uniprogramming: Run job to completion
• Multiprogramming: Put job at back of queue when performing I/O
Job C
Convoy Effect
• Short running jobs stuck waiting for long jobs
– Example: 1 CPU bound job, 3 I/O bound jobs
CPU
A
Disk
Idle
B C C
A
B C C
A
Idle
A
B C C
Time
• Problems
– Reduces utilization of I/O devices
– Hurts response time of short jobs
B C C
Shortest Job First
• Minimizes average response time
CPU
Job B
Job C
Job A
Time
• FCFS if simultaneous arrival
• Provably optimal (given no preemption) to
reduce response time
– Short job improved more than long job is hurt
• Not practical: Cannot know burst lengths (I/O +
CPU)
– Can only use past behavior to predict future behavior
Shortest Time to Completion First
(STCF)
• SJF with preemption
– New process arrives w/ short CPU burst
– Shorter than remaining time of current job
Job Submission: A at time 0, B/C/D at time t
CPU
A
0
B
D
A
C
t
Time
• SJF without preemption
CPU
A
Time
B
D
C
Shortest Remaining Processing Time
(SRPT)
• STCF for batch workloads
• Used in distributed systems
– Provides maximum throughput (transactions/sec)
– Minor risk of starvation
• Very popular in web servers and similar
systems
Round Robin (RR)
• Practical approach to support time-sharing
– Run job for a time-slice and then go to back of queue
– Preempted if still running at end of time-slice
• Advantages
– Fair allocation of CPU across jobs
– Low average response time when job lengths vary widely
• Avoids worst case scenarios and starvation
CPU
A
Time
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
A
Disadvantages of Round Robin
• Poor average response time when job sizes are
identical
– E.g. 10 jobs each require 10 time slices
– All complete after 100 time slices
– Even FCFS is better
• How large should the time slice be?
– Depends on the workload!
– Tradeoff between throughput and responsiveness
• Batch vs. interactive workloads
Priority based scheduling
• Priorities assigned to each process
– Run highest priority job in system (that is ready)
– Round robin among equal priority levels
• Aside: How to parse priority numbers
– Is low high or is high high? (Depends on system)
• Static vs. Dynamic priorities
– Some jobs have static priority assignments (kernel threads)
– Others need to be dynamic (user applications)
– Should priorities change as a result of scheduling
decisions?
Real world scheduling
• Current schedulers exhibit combinations of above
approaches
– Include priorities, round robin queues, queue reordering,
and much more
– There is no single good algorithm
– Nor is there a way to even measure “goodness”
• Most schedulers designed based on heuristics and best
guesses of potential workloads
– Linux has a lot of complexity to detect batch vs. interactive
processes (can change during execution)
• Many times a scheduler will work great 99% of the
time but completely fall over for 1% of workloads

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