Building Enduring Trust & Delight FOOD SECURITY Access • Availability • Utilization CLIMATE CHANGE Agricultural Production • Inputs • Harvesting • Post harvest handling • Storage • Transportation Food Manufacturing • Processing • Packaging • Storage • Distribution Consumer Contact • Point of sale • Storage • Handling • Consumption Raw Materials • Pathogens • Cross-Contamination FOOD SAFETY Mitigating for these risks allows us to: Make more food available • Reduce demand for increased production • Manage environmental footprint Lower food production costs • Expanded trade opportunities • Reduced hunger and poverty Highly confidential, Mars Inc POVERTY O OH C H3 H O HO O • Secondary fungal metabolites that exert toxic effects on animals and human beings. Zearalenone H3 C OH O O • More than 300 secondary metabolites have been described but only thirty really exert toxic effects. O C H3 OH HO Deoxynivalenol O O O • Health impact varies based on mycotoxin type and quantity consumed O OMe O Aflatoxin B1 • The chemical :structures of mycotoxins are Polyacetates aflatoxins, citrinine, ochratoxins very diverse patulin, zearalenone, fumonisins, Terpenes : trichothecenes (sesqui), tremorgenes, Peptides : ergotamin (alcaloïdes), tryptoquivaline,. Piperazines : sporidesmin, gliotoxin, roquefortine,.. HOOC HOOC O O OH OH C H3 H3C C H3 O O C H3 O H N H2 HOOC HOOC Fumonisin B1 COOH O OH O O N H H Cl Ochratoxin A Highly confidential, Mars Inc Prevalence of mycotoxin – changes in risk areas EFSA Prediction for risk of aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize • EFSA’s Emerging Risks Unit identified changing patterns in mycotoxin contamination due to climate change • especially aflatoxins, in cereals such as wheat, maize and rice • Shift of supply regions may also introduce new risks of mycotoxin control +2oC climate change scenario +5oC climate change scenario People • Hepatic carcinoma • Stunting in children Pets • Acute hepatic failure • Deaths Planet • Economic impact through health care costs and agricultural losses Highly confidential Mars Inc. Mycotoxin Mitigation • Risk based sampling for the future • Optimising inbound acceptance sampling • Biocontrol Post Market Surveillance • Raising the bar through global surveillance • Building capability in the USA and Asia Predictive Toxicology • In vitro model development • PBPK model development Highly confidential Mars Inc. Crop Survey Supplier Quality Assurance In the field • Good agricultural practices • Biocontrol • Match cultivar with geographic region & climate (humidity / temperature / rainfall) • Strain selection (breeding & GMO) • Treatments (insects and fungi) Factory Quality Management Process At harvesting • Timing of harvest (maturity / moisture) During storage • Shelling • Drying • Grading During process & transformation • Inbound acceptance sampling • Temperature • Binders Highly confidential, Mars Inc • Use of one living organism to control another by competitive exclusion – Field introduction of large numbers of nontoxigenic spores of same species known to produce target mycotoxin – Competes with naturally occurring toxigenic strains for infection sites on crop – Due to higher numbers swamps toxigenic strains reducing mycotoxin concentration in crop Highly confidential Mars Inc. Sample Points A B A B A A A B B B B B Top of Truck B A A B A A A Automatic Sampling (pneumatic) Insert the probe and take a sample at the top, middle and bottom of the truck at sample point Manual Sampling Insert the probe to the bottom of the truck x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x • Sampling 20 samples from truck • 10 first points combined as Group A • 10 latter points combined as Group B • Sample A&B are individually ground for testing Two sets of samples, A and B. B Starts by addressing Food Safety with 1 supplier - Establishing a relationship with a customer through clear specification and audit Impacts a supply chain Impacts an industry Impacts society Highly confidential, Mars Inc © COPYRIGHT MARS INCORPORATED | CONFIDENTIAL - climate stress introduces new risks Prevalence of mycotoxin – changes in risk areas Raw materials grown in new regions – how do you assess risk? Extreme weather wipes out crops Water scarcity • Four aflatoxin types (order of toxicity): – B1 >G1 > B2 > G2 • Other aflatoxin types occur as metabolic products (e.g., aflatoxin M1 in milk) • Highly toxic Aflatoxin B1 – Aflatoxins are among the most toxic naturally occurring substances known. – Carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic – All animal species affected by aflatoxins. – Can be passed through food chain (e.g., milk of animals which are fed contaminated feed). • Heat Stable – Withstand typical food processing temperatures 2012 A Year of Drought and Floods Hits Supply • Drought in Russia and US hits grain quantity and quality • US • Yield down nearly 30% • Quality 23% of the crop is rated as good to excellent down from 66% Russia Forecast 2012 % change from 2011 • UK wheat harvest hit by rain impacting Quality • only 4% of supplies from top-grade varieties reached top milling standards, compared with 40% last year Highly confidential, Mars Inc CSIRO PCH Nontoxigenic strain selection & competitive assessment Inoculum optimisation Initial nontoxigenic strain screening Inoculum preparation Aflatoxin assays Field trials including postharvest treatments in maize • Strain selection 2011 • Crops 1 & 2 (floods) • Crop 3 / inoculum optimisation 2012 • Crop 4 • Beyond Thailand? 2013 • Other crops? Highly confidential, Mars Inc • Problem – Aspergillus flavus spore numbers in soil in experiments in Thailand have been lower than expected • Potential causes – Soil fungi and bacteria may outcompete Aspergillus flavus in very wet soils, as may occur with tropical rainfall, resulting in poor growth of inoculum Highly confidential Mars Inc. • CSIRO process for manufacturing inoculum for use in biocontrol in maize and peanuts is simple, relatively inexpensive and requires only a mixer – – – – Grow Aspergillus flavus spores in the laboratory Mix the spores with 60% molasses as a carrier Add mixture to hulled rice at rate of 2% by weight Broadcast the rice on fields at appropriate rates, 50 – 400 kg/ha, to assess the efficacy of the process Highly confidential Mars Inc. • Goal – Encourage germination of spores on hulled rice at time of manufacture, 1-7 days before spreading • Solution – Increase aw of rice substrate during manufacture – aw 0.95-0.96 appeared optimal in promoting germination of Aspergillus flavus spores – Did not result in anticipated difficulties • Fungus did not sporulate in enclosed sacks within 7 days • Fungus did not clump the rice grains within 7 days • Other fungi did not grow Highly confidential Mars Inc. a. Growth of inoculum on wet soil (1.00 aw) after 3 days - growth is almost entirely of contaminant fungi b. Growth at 0.90 aw after 3 days - most grains show growth of A. flavus and some sporulation c. Growth at 0.98 aw after 3 days - heavy A. flavus sporulation is evident Highly confidential Mars Inc.