Mycotoxin Mitigation

Report
Building Enduring Trust & Delight
FOOD SECURITY
Access • Availability • Utilization
CLIMATE
CHANGE
Agricultural
Production
• Inputs
• Harvesting
• Post harvest
handling
• Storage
• Transportation
Food
Manufacturing
• Processing
• Packaging
• Storage
• Distribution
Consumer
Contact
• Point of sale
• Storage
• Handling
• Consumption
Raw Materials • Pathogens • Cross-Contamination
FOOD SAFETY
Mitigating for these risks allows us to:
Make more food available • Reduce demand for increased production • Manage environmental footprint
Lower food production costs • Expanded trade opportunities • Reduced hunger and poverty
Highly confidential, Mars Inc
POVERTY
O
OH
C H3
H
O
HO
O
• Secondary fungal metabolites that exert
toxic effects on animals and human beings.
Zearalenone
H3 C
OH
O
O
• More than 300 secondary metabolites have
been described but only thirty really exert
toxic effects.
O
C H3
OH
HO
Deoxynivalenol
O
O
O
• Health impact varies based on mycotoxin type
and quantity consumed
O
OMe
O
Aflatoxin B1
• The
chemical :structures
of mycotoxins
are
Polyacetates
aflatoxins,
citrinine, ochratoxins
very diverse patulin, zearalenone, fumonisins,
Terpenes : trichothecenes (sesqui), tremorgenes,
Peptides :
ergotamin (alcaloïdes), tryptoquivaline,.
Piperazines : sporidesmin, gliotoxin, roquefortine,..
HOOC
HOOC
O
O
OH OH
C H3
H3C
C H3 O
O
C H3 O H
N H2
HOOC
HOOC
Fumonisin B1
COOH O
OH
O
O
N
H
H
Cl
Ochratoxin A
Highly confidential, Mars Inc
Prevalence of mycotoxin – changes in risk areas
EFSA Prediction for risk of
aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize
• EFSA’s Emerging Risks Unit
identified changing patterns in
mycotoxin contamination due to
climate change
• especially aflatoxins, in cereals such
as wheat, maize and rice
• Shift of supply regions may also
introduce new risks of mycotoxin
control
+2oC climate change scenario
+5oC climate change scenario
People
• Hepatic carcinoma
• Stunting in children
Pets
• Acute hepatic failure
• Deaths
Planet
• Economic impact through health care
costs and agricultural losses
Highly confidential Mars Inc.
Mycotoxin Mitigation
• Risk based sampling for the future
• Optimising inbound acceptance sampling
• Biocontrol
Post Market Surveillance
• Raising the bar through global
surveillance
• Building capability in the USA and Asia
Predictive Toxicology
• In vitro model development
• PBPK model development
Highly confidential Mars Inc.
Crop
Survey
Supplier
Quality
Assurance
In the field
• Good agricultural
practices
• Biocontrol
• Match cultivar with
geographic region &
climate (humidity /
temperature / rainfall)
• Strain selection
(breeding & GMO)
• Treatments (insects
and fungi)
Factory
Quality
Management
Process
At harvesting
• Timing of harvest
(maturity / moisture)
During storage
• Shelling
• Drying
• Grading
During process &
transformation
• Inbound
acceptance sampling
• Temperature
• Binders
Highly confidential, Mars Inc
• Use of one living organism
to control another by
competitive exclusion
– Field introduction of large
numbers of nontoxigenic spores
of same species known to
produce target mycotoxin
– Competes with naturally
occurring toxigenic strains for
infection sites on crop
– Due to higher numbers swamps
toxigenic strains reducing
mycotoxin concentration in crop
Highly confidential Mars Inc.
Sample Points
A
B
A
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
Top of Truck
B
A
A
B
A
A
A
Automatic Sampling (pneumatic)
Insert the probe and take a sample at the
top, middle and bottom of the truck at
sample point
Manual Sampling
Insert the probe to the bottom of the truck
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x x
x
x
x x x
x
• Sampling 20 samples from truck
• 10 first points combined as Group A
• 10 latter points combined as Group B
• Sample A&B are individually ground for testing
Two sets of samples, A and B.
B
Starts by addressing Food Safety
with 1 supplier
- Establishing a relationship with a
customer through clear specification
and audit
Impacts a supply chain
Impacts an industry
Impacts society
Highly confidential, Mars Inc
© COPYRIGHT MARS INCORPORATED | CONFIDENTIAL
- climate stress introduces new risks
Prevalence of
mycotoxin –
changes in risk
areas
Raw materials
grown in new
regions – how
do you assess
risk?
Extreme
weather
wipes out
crops
Water scarcity
•
Four aflatoxin types (order of toxicity):
– B1 >G1 > B2 > G2
•
Other aflatoxin types occur as metabolic products (e.g., aflatoxin
M1 in milk)
• Highly toxic
Aflatoxin
B1
– Aflatoxins
are
among the most toxic naturally occurring substances known.
– Carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic
– All animal species affected by aflatoxins.
– Can be passed through food chain (e.g., milk of animals which are fed
contaminated feed).
•
Heat Stable
– Withstand typical food processing temperatures
2012 A Year of Drought and Floods Hits Supply
• Drought in Russia and US hits
grain quantity and quality
• US
• Yield down nearly 30%
• Quality 23% of the crop is
rated as good to excellent
down from 66%
Russia Forecast 2012
% change from 2011
• UK wheat harvest hit by rain
impacting Quality
• only 4% of supplies from
top-grade varieties
reached top milling
standards, compared with
40% last year
Highly confidential, Mars Inc
CSIRO
PCH
Nontoxigenic strain
selection & competitive
assessment
Inoculum optimisation
Initial nontoxigenic
strain screening
Inoculum preparation
Aflatoxin assays
Field trials including postharvest treatments in maize
• Strain selection
2011 • Crops 1 & 2 (floods)
• Crop 3 / inoculum optimisation
2012 • Crop 4
• Beyond Thailand?
2013 • Other crops?
Highly confidential, Mars Inc
• Problem
– Aspergillus flavus spore numbers in
soil in experiments in Thailand have
been lower than expected
• Potential causes
– Soil fungi and bacteria may
outcompete Aspergillus flavus
in very wet soils, as may occur
with tropical rainfall, resulting in
poor growth of inoculum
Highly confidential Mars Inc.
• CSIRO process for manufacturing
inoculum for use in biocontrol in maize
and peanuts is simple, relatively
inexpensive and requires only a mixer
–
–
–
–
Grow Aspergillus flavus spores in the laboratory
Mix the spores with 60% molasses as a carrier
Add mixture to hulled rice at rate of 2% by weight
Broadcast the rice on fields at appropriate rates,
50 – 400 kg/ha, to assess the efficacy of the
process
Highly confidential Mars Inc.
• Goal
– Encourage germination of spores on hulled rice at
time of manufacture, 1-7 days before spreading
• Solution
– Increase aw of rice substrate during manufacture
– aw 0.95-0.96 appeared optimal in promoting
germination of Aspergillus flavus spores
– Did not result in anticipated difficulties
• Fungus did not sporulate in enclosed sacks within 7 days
• Fungus did not clump the rice grains within 7 days
• Other fungi did not grow
Highly confidential Mars Inc.
a. Growth of inoculum on wet soil (1.00 aw) after 3 days
- growth is almost entirely of contaminant fungi
b. Growth at 0.90 aw after 3 days
- most grains show growth of A. flavus and some sporulation
c. Growth at 0.98 aw after 3 days
- heavy A. flavus sporulation is evident
Highly confidential Mars Inc.

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