Music is what feelings sound like. ~Author Unknown Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. * Opening Activity: John Cage’s “4’33” The elements of music are sometimes referred to as the ingredients of a composition. Melody Harmony Texture Composition Notation Rhythm Tone Colour Form Tempo Pitch Dynamics All styles of music, including rock, jazz, country, hip-hop, use the same basic elements of music. The reason each style sounds different is that every style combines the basic musical elements in a different way. The second thing that sets them apart is the musical instruments used. Classical music sounds the way it does because it uses violins, cellos, woodwinds. Rock sounds the way it does because it uses distorted electric guitars. The basic musical elements for each style remain the same. Creating a composition is the act of creating music, either on paper or in sound. Creating the music on paper is called notation. Notation is the written expression of music notes using symbols. When music is written down, the composer may also include instructions on how the music should be played. For example, dynamics are how loudly or softly the music is played. Italian terms are used in music: forte, mezzo forte, piano forte. Forte: loud (tallest) Mezzo forte : medium loud(slouching) Piano: quiet (shortest) Crescendo: becoming stronger (rising up) Diminuendo: becoming softer (sinking down) * Activity 1) Beethoven’s fifth symphony A melody is an organized group of tones. It is often the part of music we remember the most Melody is often referred to as the “tune” or the “theme” and is form many people the essence of music. SONG 1 * Activity 2) Beethoven’s Fur Elise Have you heard this before? Where have you heard it. What style of music is it? SONG 2 * Nas’ I can What style of music? Is there anything you recognize in this song? If so, why do you think the artist chose to use Beethoven in his song? What does it have to do, if anything, with his theme? Harmony is a group of notes played behind, beneath, and around the melody. Harmony supports the melody and gives a piece of music texture or mood. Texture can be the relationship between melody and harmony. Often texture consists of thick and thin notes played at the same time. *How music works 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gTR_Lg59Jc&fe ature=related Rhythm involves patterns of sound and silence. The combinations of long and short, even and uneven sounds that convey a sense of movement. Beat is like your pulse! Your heart keeps the beat for the rest of your body! Tempo is the pace at which music moves, based on the speed of the underlying beat. It is how fast or slow music is played or performed. Tempo is described using Italian terms such as: allegro (quick), lento (slowly), presto (very fast). How music works http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_jEkNi YFNc&feature=related Listen to the ways rhythm, beat and tempo are used * Activity 3) Stomp http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zu15O u-jKM0 Create (with a partner or on your own) a composition using rhythm, beat and tempo. You can clap your hands, stomp your feet or tap your desk. You must use one of the tempo terms: allegro (quick), lento (slow), presto (very fast) Timbre is the distinctive quality or tone of a sound. Tone Colour is the unique quality in the sound of an instrument or voice that helps us to readily identify them. The different instruments of an orchestra or a band all have very unique sound characteristics that make them identifiable. As do the voices of your classmates Activity 4) Test your tone and timbre skills. Form refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. Musical form may include: chorus, verse, pre-chorus, bridge Chorus The element of the song that repeats at least once and conveys the main message or theme of the song. Normally the most memorable element of the song for listeners. Verse When two or more sections of the song have basically identical music and different lyrics each section is considered one verse. Pitch refers to high and low musical tones. The frequency of the sound is lower or higher depending on where it falls on the musical scale. For instance, the pitch changes as a you press the keys from one end of a piano to the other.