Multiple Intelligences

Report
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES . . .
Howard Gardner’s developing psychological research and study of
learning since 1972 has transformed into valued educational
theories and strategies commonly known as “Multiple
Intelligences.”
Howard Gardner, American Psychologist and Educator, was born on
July 11, 1943. His parents escaped from Nurnberg, Germany in
1938 with their three-year old son, Eric. Just before Howard
Gardner’s birth, his brother Eric died in a sledding accident. Both
events were not discussed during Gardner’s childhood. These two
events had profound impact on Gardner’s development. Only
intellectual pursuits were encouraged by his parents. (Smith)
Gardner ‘s Career Path - Piano teacher (1958-1969); Elementary
School Teacher (Newton, MA 1969); Research Associate (19721975); Harvard Graduate School of Education Lecturer in
Education (1974-1986); Associate Professor of Neurology (19841987); Research Affiliate (1982-1986); Research Psychologist
(1978-1991); Consulting Psychologist at Boston Veterans
Administration Medical Center (1991-1993); Harvard Graduate
School Professor of Education (1986-1998); Project Zero CoDirector (1972-2000) & Senior Director (2000-present); John H.
and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education,
Harvard Graduate School of Education 1998-present) (Plucker)
GARDNER’S THEORIES PUT INTO BOOKS
1983; 2003 Frames of
Mind
1991 The Unschooled
Mind: How Children
Think and How Schools
Should Teach
1993 Multiple
Intelligences: The
Theory in Practice
1999 Intelligence
Reframed
1999 The Disciplined
Mind: What All Students
Should Understand
2000 The Disciplined
Mind: Beyond Facts And
Standardized Tests, The
K-12 Education That
Every Child Deserves
2011 Truth, Beauty, and
Goodness Reframed
1967-present Project
Zero, Currently a
Principal Investigator
His first publications ask this intelligence question . . .
STUDENT FRIENDLY LEARNING STYLES-TYPES
OF INTELLIGENCES DIAGRAM
(williams)
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/interpersonal-intelligence-definitionexamples-characteristics.html
GARDNER’S 8 CATEGORIES OF INTELLIGENCES
1. Linguistic intelligence
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
3. Spatial intelligence
4. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
5. Musical intelligences
6. Interpersonal intelligence
7. Intrapersonal intelligence
8. Naturalist intelligence
9. Existential intelligence-Gardner proposed this addition after initially publishing the
first 8 categories of multiple intelligences.
LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE
“the ability to think in words and to
use language to express and
appreciate complex meanings.”
(campbell, p xx)
Characterisitics:
• often speak about things that you
read
• love to write
• find it easy to learn new languages
• enjoy English class and word
games
• deep interest in working with
words
Writers
Teachers
Public
Speakers
Poets
Journalists
Broadcaster
Journalists
Editors
LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE
“makes it possible to calculate, quantify,
consider propositions and hypotheses,
and carry out complex mathematical
operations.” (campbell, p. xx)
Characterisitcs:
•
Easily do math in their head
•
Good at strategy games
•
Enjoy science experiments
•
Organize things by category
•
Abstract thinker
•
Wonder how things work
•
Look for a rationale explanation
Scientists
Bookkeepers
Computer Programmers
Lawyers
Doctors
Accountants
Engineers
Researchers
Financial Planners
SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE
“instills the capacity to think in three-dimensional
ways as do sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters,
and architects.” (campbell, p. xx)
Characteristics:
•
Interested in solving visual puzzles
•
Can visualize images in their head
•
Enjoyed geometry in school
•
Clearly notice shapes and colors
•
Like books containing pictures
•
Can remember places clearly
Graphic
Designers
Artists
Engineers
Interior
Decorators
Fashion
Designer
Photographers
BODILY-KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE
“…one to manipulate objects and fine-tune physical skills.” (campbell,
pg xxi)
Characteristics:
• Learns by doing
• Enjoys the outdoors
• Well-coordinated with
good motor skills
• Likes to work with hands
• Has high physical energy
• Can’t sit still too long
Surgeons
Dancers
Crafters
Athletes
Physical
Therapists
Mechanics
Gardeners
Performers
P.E. Teachers
MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE
“…individuals who possess a sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm & tone.”
(campbell, p. xxi)
Characteristics:
•
•
•
•
Easily memorize songs
Often singing, whistling
or tapping a song
Responds readily to
music
Often has a song
running through their
head
Careers: performers, singers,
conductors,
composers/songwriter,
music teacher, choir/band
director, record producer
INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
“…capcity to understand and interact
effectively with others.” (campbell, p. xxi)
Characteristics:
•
Strong leadership skills
•
Good verbal and non-verbal communicators
•
Cooperative, team players
•
Show empathy in sensitive situations
•
Develop positive relationships with others
•
Show strong organizational skills
•
Can view situations from many viewpoints
Counselors
Politician
Sales Rep.
Actors
Teachers
Administrators
INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
“…to construct an accurate perception of
oneself and to use such knowledge in
planning and directing one’s life.”
(campbell, p. xxi)
Characteristics:
• Intuitive
Psychologists
Philosophers
Writer
Theologian
• Independent
• Introverted
• Understands personal
strengths/weaknesses
• Spends time thinking and reflecting
• Self-employment is appealing
• Philisophical
NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE
Characteristics:
• Loves nature
• Enjoys pets
• Likes to hike,
walk, & camp
• Notices weather
changes
Veterinarians
Conservationists
Meteorologists
Geologists
Animal Trainers
Gardeners
Ecologists
Farmers
Landscapers
Botanists
A HOWARD GARDNER PICTURE IMAGE FOUND
@ WITHFRIENDSHIP.COM
•
•
•
•
•
•
Work Zone
Storage Zone
Display Zone
Library Zone
Soft Zone
Movement Zone
CURRICULUM
 When an educational topic interests students, the chance for more effective
instruction is increased exponentially!
 Multiple Intelligences instructional processes for curriculum creation and
implementation are meant to improve student learning in any discipline.
 There are a multitude of multiple intelligence teaching strategies. Using 3 or 4
modes as pathways to content is recommended. Students will get information in
many ways. Helpful instructional menus have been designed to create lessons.
(Campbell, p. 252-253)
 Teaching interdisciplinary units can engage Multiple Intelligences and create
meaningful learning connections. Team teaching is one way to make implementing
Multiple Intelligences lessons more manageable.
 Learning Centers based on Multiple Intelligences are effective teaching tools.
 Project-based curriculum require student led learning. This
creates more engaged, active learners.
 Avoid curriculum biases by using Gardner’s theory to
address all learner’s needs.
BENEFITS & CHALLENGES OF INTERDISCIPLINARY
EDUCATION USING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
We’ve heard these type of comments …
“We should
use the arts in
the general
classroom.”
“Music teachers
are good
collaborators &
special educators.
It’s a natural fit.”
“A collaborative
learner is a complex
thinker.”
“We
need to
teach
the
whole
child.”
“It is so
efficient to
integrate the
arts into the
core
curriculum.”
Who disagrees with these thoughts? …So why is it
difficult to implement interdisciplinary education?
TAKE SMALL STEPS
+Good teaching is about giving students as many
tools as possible to have successful learning
outcomes.
+Use as lesson enrichment opportunities.
+Use costumes/props /chants/ songs for students
to create a photo Powerpoint or video relating
to a lesson/thematic unit.
+Try modified flipped classroom strategies to
increase interdisciplinary learning
opportunities. Put related videos, sites,
surveys on your web page. Encourage
students to investigate the resources outside
of your class. Share their reflection on the
resources (maybe earn class stars/reward).
ASSESSMENT
 Assessing learning should allow students to show what they know
and enrich their learning.
 Traditional assessments may not provide a true reflection of student
learning.
 Summative evaluations are important, but don’t improve learning.
Ex.-end of unit with emphasis on grade & accountability
 Gardner recommended active performance assessing throughout a
unit, thus, increasing student motivation and achievement.
(Campbell, p. 287)
 Good assessment of learner outcomes: captures growth over time; is
multidimensional; informs instruction; can be informal; can be
student self-assessed; and takes into account each student’s area of
Multiple Intelligences.
Math: Analytic
Scoring Guide
Linguistic:
Culminating
Essay
Music:
Songwriting
Spatial:
Pictorials
Assessment
Through The
Intelligences
Interpersonal:
Peer Review
Nature:
Observational
Checklist
Bodily:
Exhibitions
Intrapersonal:
Reflective
Journal
(CAMPBELL, P. 300)
KNOWLEDGE GAINED THROUGH MULTIPLE
INTELLIGENCE SCHOOL PROGRAMS
 Educators adapted Howard Gardner’s theories because they fit with the proof
found in teacher’s daily experiences. That proof is every child learns in a different
way. (Smith)
 Gardner’s research and theories helped educators more effectively teach in ways
more conducive to all their students. (Smith)
 A teacher’s belief in students multi-talent and students success raise student
expectation and achievement. (Campbell, p. 324)
 Multiple intelligences expands the classroom teacher’s instructional repertoire.(
Campbell, p. 325)
 Curricular changes have been made in classroom instruction, interdisciplinary,
thematic, project-based and center styles of learning.
 Assessment changes are made as student work is integrated with instruction, as
students self & peer assess, and the products and processes of learning are
both valued.
 Gardner’s intelligences challenged teachers to begin teaching content in new
ways, in creating new instructional strategies and in assessing students.
 Student learning is guided strongly by each individual student’s interest and
talent.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE TEACHER TOOLS
PROMPTS FOR VARIOUS THINKING STYLES:
A DIAGRAM TO HELP STUDENTS FIND THEIR
LEARNING STYLE
ANOTHER WAY FOR STUDENTS TO FIND THEIR
LEARNING STYLE
ELEMENTARY STUDENTS DIAGRAM FOR
FINDING LEARNING STYLES
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE & EDUCATION’S
FUTURE
Common Core
learning provides a
consistent, clear
understanding of
learner outcomes
created to reflect
information and
skills students need
to succeed in
college & careers.
Each chart area is designed to
work together educating our
children.
REFERENCES
Campbell, L., Campbell, Bl, & Dickinson, D. (2004). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences (third ed.). Boston, MA:
Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
Framework for 21st Century Learning. (n.d.). In Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from
http://www.p21.org/overview/skills-framework
Implementing the Common Core State Standards. (n.d.). In Common Core State Standards Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from
http://www.corestandards.org/
Kelly, M. (n.d.). Profile in Existential Intelligence. In About.com.secondary education. Retrieved September 22, 2013, from
http://712educators.about.com/od/multipleint/p/existential-Intelligence.htm
Kendra, C. (n.d.). Howard Gardner Biography. In Psychology.About.com. Retrieved September 22, 2013, from
http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesal/p/howard-gardner.htm
Plucker, J. A. (Ed.). (2013). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Howard Gardner.
Retrieved September 22, 2013, from http://www.intelltheory.com
Powers, K. (2013, October). Crossover Classes: Missing the Message. Teaching Music, 21(2), 28-33.
Project Zero. (n.d.). In Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero. Retrieved September 22, 2013, from
http://www.pz.gse.harvard.edu/index.php
Seven Things You Should Know About.the Flipped Classroom. (2012, February). In Educause Learning Initiative. Retrieved October 14,
2013, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7081.pdf
Smith, Mark K. (2002, 2008) ‘Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences’, the encyclopedia of informal
education,http://www.infed.org/mobi/howard-gardner-multiple-intelligences-and-education.
Sternberg, R. J., & Zhang, L. (2005, June). Styles of Thinking as a Basis of Differentiated Instruction [Electronic version].Theory into
Practice, 44(3), 245-253.
Williams, Y. (n.d.). Interpersonal Intelligence. In Education Portal. Retrieved September 22, 2013, from http://educationportal.com/academy/lesson/interpersonal-intelligence-definition-examples-characteristics.html
Wilson, L. (n.d.). Overview of Brain Based Education. In ED 790 - Brain Based Education. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from
http://www4.uwsp.edu/education/lwilson/brain/bboverview.htm

similar documents