Crime and Punishment Through Time

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Crime and Punishment Through Time
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Roman
Medieval
Early Modern
Industrial
Modern
General Terms
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Crime and
Punishment In
Ancient Rome
Q 01
Decimation
A 01
• Punishment used by the Roman army.
• If a soldier tried to desert the army and was
caught the whole group would be punished.
• The punishment was the execution of every
10th soldier.
• This punishment was a deterrent; designed to
put off potential deserters.
Q 02
12 Tables
A 02
• A set of tablets or signs that outline the 12
sets of Roman laws.
• Children were taught to read and write by
reciting and copying out these laws.
• They were displayed in public places.
• If a Roman committed a crime they could not
claim that they did not know the laws.
Q 03
Vigiles
A 03
• One form of Roman Policing.
• They patrolled the streets at night.
• Their jobs included:
– Fighting fires
– Preventing crimes
– Capturing run away slaves
Q 04
Urban
Cohorts
A 04
• These were soldiers.
• They main job was to stop riots and keep
order.
• They did NOT patrol the streets.
Q 05
Praetorian
Guard
A 05
• These were soldiers.
• They were from the Emperor’s personal guard.
• They were only called in to protect the
emperor if there was an emergency or a riot.
Q 06
Did the Romans
try to prevent
crime?
A 06
• On the one hand:
– The Vigiles were used to prevent minor crimes at
night time.
• However, on the other hand:
– Romans had to catch criminals themselves.
– Vigiles only operated at night.
– Although there were harsh punishments and the
Urban Cohorts as a deterrent, the Romans did not
actively try to stop crime from happening.
Q 07
For what crimes
could Roman
citizens be put to
death?
A 07
•
•
•
•
Arson
Attacking the Emperor
Robbing a temple
Stealing Farm animals
Q 08
How were Romans
citizens punished
for minor crimes?
A 08
• Whipping
• Confiscation of goods
• Fines
Q 09
Why is it difficult for
Historians to work out
how much crime took
place in ancient Rome?
A 09
It is very difficult to work out how much
crime took place in ancient Rome because
very little documentary (written down)
evidence survives from this time period.
Without records no one can really know
the extent of crime in ancient Rome.
Q 10
Give examples of
the types of crime
that occurred in
Ancient Rome
A 10
•
•
•
•
•
•
Assassination
Murder
Rioting
Arson
Theft
Selling of underweight goods (fraud)
Q 11
Magistrate
A 11
• Someone who listened to court cases.
• For minor cases they made the decisions
alone.
• For major cases they listened to cases with a
jury.
• They did not need to be legally trained; they
could take advice from layers.
Q 12
Did the Roman
legal system
spread to their
empire?
A 12
• On the one hand:
– Roman citizens, no matter where they lived in the
empire, were subject to Roman laws and the same
legal protection they could expect at home.
– Cases would be heard by a local Magistrate.
– Just as in Rome, the Roman Magistrate would only
listen to cases brought to him, they would not search
for criminals.
• However, on the other hand:
– Non-citizens (for example the native Britons in
England) would be tried according to their own
customs.
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Crime and
Punishment In
Medieval England
Q 01
Saxon
Punishments
A 01
•
•
•
•
•
Blood feud
Wergild (and other fines)
Mutilation
Execution
Prison (only to hold before a trial, not as a
long term punishment).
Q 02
Blood Feud
A 02
• This was a punishment against violent crimes.
• If you committed a crime against a member of
another family a blood feud would exist between
your families.
• This would result in the victims family taking
‘revenge’ on the other family.
• If however the revenge was seen as more violent
than the original crime this would result in
further revenge.
• This cycle could go on for generations.
Q 03
Wergild
A 03
• ‘Blood Money’ this was paid to someone as a
form of compensation of the damage they had
made to a persons.
• The amount depended on what part of the victim
had been damaged. For example you would have
to pay 50 shillings if you knocked out someone’s
eye or 6 shillings if you broke their arm.
• This replaced the blood feud.
• This was a SAXON punishment.
Q 04
Why was Wergild
better than the
blood feud?
A 04
The Wergild was better than the Blood
Feud because this new form of
punishment by fines discouraged further
violence unlike the Blood Feud which
promoted further violence. The overall
result was a reduction in violent crime.
Q 05
Mutilation
A 05
• To have a part of the body cut off.
• A common punishment for re-offenders.
Q 06
The ‘hue and cry’
A 06
• A form of Saxon and Norman policing.
• If someone saw a crime being committed they
had to cry out to their fellow villagers for help.
• The villagers would then collectively attempt
to catch the criminal and bring him before the
local lord.
Q 07
Tithing
A 07
• A form of Saxon and Norman policing.
• In a village the adult men (Over 12 years old)
were members of a group of 10 (the tithing)
• The 10 men were then responsible for each
others’ behaviour.
• If one of them broke the law the rest were
expected to being that person to justice.
Q 08
Trial by ordeal
A 08
• Allowing the judgment for a crime to be made
by god.
• There were four main Saxon ordeals:
– Trial by fire (or hot iron)
– Trial by Cold water
– Trial by Hot water
– Trial by Sacrament
• The Normans introduced another ordeal:
– Trial by Combat
Q 09
Trial by fire
A 09
• Usually undertaken by women
• For this they had to:
– Hold a red hot iron bar for either a number of seconds
or a number of paces.
– Then have their wounds bandaged.
– After a number of days their wounds were checked.
• The outcome:
– If their wounds began to heal God had deemed them
innocent.
– If their wounds had not begun to heal God had
deemed them guilty.
Q 10
Trial by Hot
Water
A 10
• Usually undertaken by men
• For this they had to:
– Take an item from the bottom of a container of boiling
hot water.
– Then have their wounds bandaged.
– After a number of days their wounds were checked.
• The outcome:
– If their wounds began to heal God had deemed them
innocent.
– If their wounds had not begun to heal God had
deemed them guilty.
Q 11
Trial by Cold
Water
A 11
• Usually undertaken by men (only used for
witches centuries later)
• For this they had to:
– Be placed in a local lake or pond.
• The outcome:
– If they went under the water (which represented
purity) they were considered innocent.
– If they floated (rejected by the pure water) they
were considered guilty.
Q 12
Trial by
Sacrament
A 12
• Usually undertaken by priests
• For this they had to:
– Pray for a blessed piece of bread to choke them if
they were guilty.
– Then try to eat the bread.
• The outcome:
– If they did choke on the bread they were guilty.
– If they did not choke on the bread they were not
guilty.
Q 13
Trial by
Combat
A 13
• Introduced by the Normans
• Usually undertaken by men
• For this they had to:
– Fight their accuser, or pay someone to fight for them.
– This was either to the death or until one part gave in.
• The outcome:
– The winner was considered to have the protection of
God and was therefore innocent.
– The loser was not protected by God and was therefore
guilty.
Q 14
Why did they use
trial by Ordeal?
A 14
Criminals were usually tried by a Jury of
people that they knew. Trial by ordeal
was used if the jury could not decide on
the guilt or innocence of the person.
They would then use an ordeal to allow
God to make the judgement.
Q 15
What did the
Normans
change/introduce
?
A 15
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Feudal System
Murdrum fines
Forrest Laws
French language for written laws
Trial by Combat
Fines paid to King not the victim
The status of women in law was reduced
Q 16
What did the
Normans keep the
same?
A 16
•
•
•
•
Tithings
Hew & cry
Trial by jury (before ordeal)
Trial by ordeal (after a jury failed to make a
decision)
Q 17
Why do you think
William I wanted to
make changes to
Saxon law?
A 17
• On the one hand he made some changes because:
– He wanted to make sure the Normans were in control after
the conquest. Changes such as the forest laws, using
Norman French and the Murdum fines are good examples.
– He also changed some of the punishments (such as paying
fines to the King) to make sure everyone knew that he was
now in control.
• However, on the other hand he kept some things the
same because:
– He wanted people to understand the laws, too much
change would have left too much confusion.
– He did not want to upset too many people and cause more
rebellion.
Q 18
Murdrum Fine
A 18
• If a Norman was killed by a Saxon this was
know not as murder but as Murdrum.
• If the guilty party could not be found the
whole village had to share in a large fine.
• This would encourage people in the village to
come forward if they knew who had
committed the crime.
Q 19
Forrest Laws
A 19
• Forests that were protected by this law could
only be hunted in by Normans.
• The trees could not be cut down for fuel or
buildings.
• People who lived in the forest could not own
bows.
• If caught hunting in these forests the
punishment was blinding!
Q 20
A 20
This was a system
used by William the
Conqueror to control
the country by giving
out land in exchange
for loyalty.
Q 21
How did the use of
the French language
help control the
Saxons?
A 21
Writing the laws using the French
language helped control the Saxons as it
excluded Saxons from understanding
written laws or contributing to any new
written laws. This helped the Normans
to stay in control.
Q 22
Which King is most
associated with Court
reform and ‘Royal
Justice’ in the later
middle ages?
A 22
• Henry II
Q 23
What would you
associate with
‘Royal Justice’?
A 23
•
•
•
•
•
•
Justices of the Peace (JP’s)
The Kings Peace
County Gaols
Travelling Justices
Jury by ‘Writ’
County Coroners
Q 24
Justice of the
Peace (JP)
A 24
• Originally 3-4 JP’s were appointed for each
county.
• They were from the Gentry (the lords/Knights)
• They were responsible for keeping peace.
• They had the power to:
– Fine
– Arrest & Bind
– Hear local cases in small courts 4 time each year
Q 25
Kings Peace
A 25
• This was originally an area around the king, or
the roads that he was travelling on.
• If a crime was committed in the area
designated as ‘the Kings Peace’ then the
punishments were considerably more harsh.
• This was designed to deter criminals from
committing crime near to the King.
• Henry II decided to extend these rules to the
whole country, not just directly around him.
Q 26
County Gaols
A 26
• Gaols were built in each county to punish
criminals.
Q 27
Travelling Justices
A 27
• If you wanted the King to hear your case then
you would have to follow him around, this
could take a long time.
• The Travelling Justices were Judges given the
right to hear cases in the Kings place.
• This increased the number of cases that could
be heard at a given time.
Q 28
Jury by ‘Writ’
A 28
• If you did not want to have your case decided
by Ordeal you could pay for a ‘Writ’.
• This gave the person the right to have their
case heard in the Kings court and have the
verdict given by a Jury.
• When trial by Ordeal was ended in 1215
everyone had to be tried by Jury, which meant
that king raised a lot of money through the
purchase of Writs.
Q 29
County Coroner
A 29
• These were people who were responsible for
investigating sudden or unusual deaths.
• They also dealt with those in sanctuary.
Q 30
Do you think that
Royal Justice helped
improve the legal
system?
A 30
• On the one hand:
– Many of the decisions of law and justices were taken
away from the local lords who knew their
communities best.
• However, on the other hand:
–
–
–
–
Writs and JP’s fines raised money for the king.
Travelling justices made legal processes quicker.
Jury’s made verdicts more fair.
Corrupt local lords who would have ignored the kings
laws could no longer do so.
Q 31
What two things
were offered by the
Church courts?
A 31
• Benefit of the Clergy
• Sanctuary
Q 32
Benefit of the
Clergy
A 32
• The Church would try any churchman in their
own courts
• This was originally designed for the Clergy.
• Eventually anyone remotely connected to the
church claimed the right to be tried by the
church as they were seen as less harsh.
• This annoyed the king as he felt that the
church was too soft and too many people
were getting off lightly.
Q 33
Sanctuary
A 33
• If you were on the run from the law and you got
to a church you could claim sanctuary.
• This meant that you could not be arrested.
• You could only claim sanctuary if you had
committed certain crimes and the list of crimes
got shorter and shorter over the years.
• Eventually you would have to meet with the
County Coroner.
• When you confessed you were given the option
to ‘abjure’ (leave the country).
Q 34
Shari’ah Law
A 34
• This is Islamic Law based on the teachings of
the Qur’an
• The Qur’an sets out strict rules and
punishments that must be given for particular
crimes.
• It was up to the Qadi judges to interpret the
Qur’an and decide upon the correct
punishment.
Q 35
What were the
aims of Islamic
Punishments?
A 35
• To deter future criminals
• To teach the criminals a lesson
• To provide a degree of revenge to the victims
and their family.
• This also prevented families trying to take
revenge themselves and getting involved in
generations of feuding (much like the Saxon
blood feuds).
Q 36
Do you think
religion made
punishment harsh
and bloody?
A 36
• On the one hand:
– Trial by ordeal left the choice up to God and these
trials were considerably harsh and bloody.
• However, on the other hand:
– The church courts were seen as too soft on
criminals.
– Islamic Shari’ah law is designed to make
punishment fair for everyone.
Q 37
What did the
Manor Courts
deal with?
A 37
• Disputes between members of a village
• The village Reeve would bring the cases to the
Manor court every 3-4 weeks.
• The Lord/Lady of the Manor would then pass
judgement.
• This dealt with many of the minor issues that
arose from villagers being so closely
interconnected in their daily lives.
Q 38
What could
medieval women
own?
A 38
• Nothing!
• Their father or Husband owned all of their
possessions.
• The only women who could own anything
were Widows who had been left something by
their husband to support them.
Q 39
What was prejudice
towards women
based on?
A 39
• The church taught that women were inferior
to men.
Q 40
How were medieval
women treated
differently to men?
A 40
• They could not marry without permission.
• They could be divorced but could not choose to
divorce.
• They could not own property.
• They were paid less for the same work as men.
• They could not become MP’s, Doctors, or Priests.
• They could not got to university.
Q 41
What is Robin Hood
most famous for?
A 41
• Stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.
Q 42
Why might
medieval peasants
like Robin Hood?
A 42
Peasants would have liked Robin Hood
because all of the things he was said to
do; steal from the rich, be an outlaw,
hunt in the forests, were things that
ordinary people wanted to do. They
would have enjoyed hearing stories of
the Sheriff being out witted and stolen
from by a peasant.
Crime and
Punishment In Early
Modern England
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Q 01
What crimes became
typically associated
with the early
modern period?
A 01
•
•
•
•
Vagabonds
Highwaymen
Smugglers
Poachers
Q 02
What impact did the
printing press have on
peoples perceptions
of crime?
A 02
The printing press affected peoples
perceptions because it allowed
information to pass on more freely. This
meant that although crime rates did not
necessarily increase more people knew
it was happening. It also made certain
crime more high profile because they
could be reported on.
Q 03
What factors made
Early Modern England
different from the
Medieval period?
A 03
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Population growth
Greater gap between rich and poor
Changing religious ideas
Increased travel
Heavier taxation
Increased power of land owners
The printing press
Political change
Q 04
Vagabond
A 04
• A poor person, perhaps a beggar, tramp or
vagrant (homeless person)
Q 05
What were the main
causes of Poverty?
A 05
• Increased population lead to fewer jobs
• Increased price of food left people with less
money
• After Henry VII banned the barons from
having private armies many soldiers lost their
jobs.
• After Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries
there was less charity available to poor
people.
Q 06
What crimes were
connected to
Vagabonds?
A 06
• Theft
• Grifting (scamming people – e.g. Bristlers
would use loaded dice to con people out of
their money)
• Violence (e.g. The Baretop Tricksters would
lure people to a violent gang to be robbed.
Also ex-soldiers known as Rufflers would beat
people up for money.
Q 07
1601 Poor Law
A 07
• Elizabeth I created laws to:
– Help poor people with money from taxes
– Reduce begging
Q 08
How were the poor
punished before the
1601 poor law?
A 08
• 3 days in the stocks
Under Henry VII
• Whipping
Under Henry VIII
• Branded with a ‘V’
• Made slaves for two year
• Execution for repeat offenders
Under Edward VI
Q 09
Impotent poor
A 09
• Those who could not work because of age or
disability as defined by the 1601 poor law.
• These people were supported by donations of
money and food collected from the local
village by the JP.
Q 10
Able-bodied poor
A 10
• Those who could work and wanted to work as
defined by the 1601 poor law.
• The money from the Poor rate was used to
help these people by funding apprenticeships
and by setting up work houses where people
could get paid for doing very basic tasks.
Q 11
Rogues & Vagabonds
A 11
• Those who could work but instead chose to
beg to make money as defined by the 1601
poor law.
• These people were punished by whipping in
the first instance, then by prison and finally by
execution if they continued to beg.
Q 12
Heretic
A 12
• Someone who commits a transgression
against the established religion.
• A heretic is someone in conflict with the
established religion.
Q 13
How did Mary I
typically punish
heretics?
A 13
• They were burnt at the stake.
Q 14
How tolerant was
Elizabeth I towards
different religions?
A 14
• England was a Protestant country under
Elizabeth I.
• She was generally tolerant towards Catholics in
the early part of her reign as long as they did not
practice their religion in public.
• After a number of plots to over throw her she
became much less tolerant towards Catholics in
the latter part of her reign, Catholic mass was
banned and the public practice of Catholicism
was punished in the same way as treason.
Q 15
What was the
Gunpowder plot?
A 15
• A 1605 plot to blow up the houses of parliament
with the intention of killing King James I.
• The Catholic plotters wanted to assassinate the
Protestant King.
• One of the plotters, Guy Fawkes, was caught
before the explosives were set.
• He was tortured to get information on the other
plotters then brutally executed for high treason.
Q 16
Puritan
A 16
• A strict Protestant
Q 17
What things did
Oliver Cromwell
ban?
A 17
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Celebrating Christmas
Celebrating Easter
Drunkenness
Swearing
Closed brothels
Sport on Sundays
Theatres
Make up
Mending dresses on a Sunday
Q 18
Why did Cromwell
ban so many fun
things?
A 18
Oliver Cromwell banned many fun things
because as a Puritan he felt that people
must focus completely on God, Jesus
and the Bible’s teachings. It was
considered that the fun things that he
banned would have distracted people
from this pure focus on their religion.
Q 19
How do you
identify a witch?
A 19
•
•
•
•
Usually women, but not necessarily
Old widowed women
Those with cats or other small pets
Those with prominent warts or moles
Q 20
Matthew Hopkins
A 20
•
•
•
•
Usually women, but not necessarily
Old widowed women
Those with cats or other small pets
Those with prominent warts or moles
Q 21
How did the Witch
Finder General try to
prove women were
witches?
A 21
• By piercing warts/moles to look for signs of
pain.
• Dunking women in the river in the same way
as trial by cold water.
• By walking them up and down for hours, even
days until they confess.
• Many confessed rather than go through the
torture that they knew would happen if they
did not.
Q 22
Why did the number of
people convicted of
witchcraft increase in
this period?
A 22
The number of people convicted of witchcraft
in this period increased because this was a
time of religious change an people were
quick to blame any strange activities on the
devils influence. Also increased travel and
media such as the printing press allowed
stories to get passed around quickly and
possible be misinterpreted.
Q 23
Highwaymen
A 23
• Someone who would rob travellers in the
carriages.
Q 24
Gentleman Robber
A 24
• A idealised description of a Highwayman.
• These Highwaymen were considered to have a
moral code; asking their victims to ‘stand and
deliver’. This was essentially a warning before
they were robbed to allow them to get away
unharmed.
Q 25
Why did Highway
robberies increase in
th
the 18 century?
A 25
•
•
•
•
More people were travelling on the roads.
Horses were cheaper.
The roads were not policed.
Trade between towns meant that more
valuable good were being transported.
Q 26
Smugglers
A 26
• Someone who brings goods in from abroad
illegally and then sells them on without paying
any tax or duty.
Q 27
Why did people like
smugglers?
A 27
People tended to like smugglers because
they brought in goods from the new colonies
at low prices and were seen to be getting
one over on the government and rich land
owners that people did not like. This was a
very similar to the reason why people liked
the idea of Robin Hood.
Q 28
Poacher
A 28
• Someone who hunted for animals on land
where hunting was banned.
Q 29
Why did so many
people become
poachers?
A 29
So many people became poachers because
they had always hunted on the land just
continued to do what they had always done
after the new law was passed. They
therefore became poachers. Many people
did not see this as a crime.
Q 30
Bloody Code
A 30
• This was not a particular law.
• This was the name given to a set of laws
passed that made a huge number of crimes
‘capital offences’.
• This period of time, during the 18th century
saw the number of capital offences increase
from around 50 to over 200.
Q 31
Capital Offence
A 31
• An offence punishable by death.
Q 32
Do you think the
Bloody Code was
effective?
A 32
• On the one hand:
– Many people were convicted and hanged of various
crimes.
– The law makers wanted to protect their property and
this largely ensured that.
• However, on the other hand:
– Many people were pardoned of their crimes as judges
did not want to convict people knowing they would be
killed.
– Public executions actually attracted more crime,
drunkenness and theft amongst others.
– There were new ideas about punishment emerging,
such as Transportation.
Back to topic selection screen
Crime and
Punishment In
Industrial Britain
Q 01
What factors make
the industrial period
different from Early
Modern England?
A 01
• Population grew massively.
• Many more towns and cities developed.
• People moved from rural areas to live in the towns and
cities.
• Transport and communication improved greatly.
• Central government took more responsibility for
national issues.
• Poor harvests increased food prices.
• The way people worked and the jobs they did began to
change following the industrial revolution.
Q 02
Prison Reform
A 02
• Changes made to the way prisons were
operated and organised.
Q 03
Elizabeth Fry
A 03
• A Quaker woman living in 1780-1845.
• She went into women’s prisons and did not like
what she saw:
–
–
–
–
300 women in one room
Fighting and crying
Some with babies
Some were abused by male jailers
• She spent time teaching new skills to the inmates
and campaigning for better conditions.
Q 04
What was the
impact of Elizabeth
Fry?
A 04
• She influenced the contents of the 1825 Gaols
act which provided:
– Separate gaols for men and women with gender
appropriate staff.
– Prisoners were provided with food, clothing and
bedding.
– A system of prison visits was set up to ensure
standards were maintained.
Q 05
Why was John
Howard an
important man?
A 05
John Howard was an important man in the
1770 because he campaigned for prisons to
be a place of reform rather than just
punishment. He wanted people to leave
prisons as better, changed people. Some of
his ideas included separate cells and clean
prisons.
Q 06
Why was Samuel
Romiley an
important man?
A 06
Samuel Romilly was an important man in the
late 18th century because he campaigned for
a reduction of the death penalty for minor
crimes. During the 17th & 18th centuries the
bloody code and increased the number of
capital offences dramatically. Not long after
Romilly’s death murder and treason were the
only capital offences left.
Q 07
Transportaion
A 07
• A punishment whereby the convicts were
taken (typically) to Australia to serve out their
sentence.
• Once transported they were assigned to a
settler who would take them on essentially as
a slave.
• Once their sentences was complete the exprisoner would have to pay their own way
back to England.
Q 08
Hulk
A 08
• Ex-navy ships used as holding prisons until
there were enough convict to fill a transport
ship.
Q 09
Why was
transportation
used?
A 09
• It was seen as a more moderate punishment
than execution but more harsh than flogging.
• A typical sentence was 7 years.
• Prisoners were transported to America but
following the war of independence they began
to transport to Australia instead.
Q 10
Was the use of
transportation
successful?
A 10
• On the one hand:
– It did provide a compromise between execution and
minor punishments like fines and whipping.
– When prisons were still like medieval dungeons,
before the reforms, it was considered to be a more
humane option.
• However, on the other hand:
– It separated families.
– Australian citizens began to get annoyed that their
home was being used as a dumping ground.
– New prisons in the UK were adequate and cheaper.
– Some people saw transportation as a soft option.
Q 11
Describe an
th
early 19
Century prison
A 11
•
•
•
•
All convicts of all crimes were kept together.
Gaols were dirty and damp.
Most prisons were overcrowded.
Many inmates died of ‘Gaol Fever’ most likely
dysentery.
• Prison staff were not paid, they made their
money by charging prisoners for almost
everything.
Q 12
The First
Reform Act
1820
A 12
• After the reform act prisons were:
– Cleaner
– No pets were allowed in the prisons
– Prison staff had to be paid
– Inmates had to be separated in to appropriate
groups (e.g. women together, murderers separate
from the petty thieves etc..)
– Prisons were checked by magistrates.
Q 13
Borstal
A 13
• This was correction facility specifically
designed for children.
• The first one was open in 1902 in Borstal Kent.
• This was the first time children were
separated from adult criminals.
Q 14
What impact did
the 1870 Education
act have on juvenile
crime?
A 14
In introduction of the 1870 Education Act
reduced juvenile crime because it meant that
children would be in school. With more
children in school (and therefore off the
streets) in the day they were less able and
likely to break the law.
Q 15
The Separate
System
A 15
• Prisoners were not allowed to see each other.
• They were kept in separate cells, and even
separated from each other during services in
chapel.
• This was extended solitary confinement.
• This did result in mental breakdowns and even
suicide.
Q 16
The Silent
System
A 16
• By the 1860’s many people felt that reform was
making prisons a soft option.
• The Silent System was a reaction to this.
Prisoners had to endure the following:
– Hard labour; doing pointless physical tasks on a daily
basis.
– Hard fare; eating adequate but monotonous food.
– Hard board; hammocks were replaced with hard wood
beds.
• All of the above was done in silence, breaking this
rule would result in flogging.
Q 17
The Bow Street
Runners
A 17
• Early form of organised police in London.
• These were paid and trained men with the job
of policing the streets of the inner London
area.
• Bow street was where the magistrates court
was and this acted as a sort of police station
for the Bow Street Runners.
Q 18
Metropolitan
Police Act 1829
A 18
• This act formally created the Metropolitan
police that we still have today.
• This was set up by Home Secretary Sit Robert
Peel.
• The original ‘met’ police force covered an area
of 7miles around the centre of London.
• The became known as ‘Peelers’ after Robert
Peel.
Q 19
Why did
people need a
police force?
A 19
• People were afraid of crime.
• The old system of watchmen was no longer
adequate.
• Larger cities needed a different type of crime
prevention.
• Fear of revolution as had happened in France.
• Government was getting more involved in directly
affecting life in Britain.
• Robert Peel championed the idea as Home
Secretary.
Q 20
Why was there
initial hostility
towards the police?
A 20
Initially there was hostility towards the new
police force because there had never been a
group of people actively monitoring what
people were doing to see if it was criminal or
not. This was seen as interfering with
peoples’ liberties as citizens. Also they were
seen as an expense to the tax payer and the
early police were often seen drunk!
Q 21
What factors helped
changes peoples
attitudes towards the
police?
A 21
• They were given better training.
• Their contribution of 1851 Great exhibition.
• People perceived there to be a reduction in
crime.
• Over time people saw the benefit of the police
and began to respect what they were doing.
Q 22
Riot
A 22
• A form of protest.
• This is usually violent and often disorganised.
• It can result in damage to property or people.
Q 23
What were the
causes of the
Peterloo massacre?
A 23
• Poverty
– Lack of jobs following the end of the Napoleonic war.
– Increased food prices.
• Democracy
– People were not happy with the amount of power
that land owners had.
– People also did not like the uneven distribution of
people with the right to vote.
• Concern of Revolution
– Revolutions had happened in France and the
government were tense that it may also happen in
England.
Q 24
What happened at
Peterloo?
A 24
• A large number of people met at Peters Field,
Manchester.
• They were led by Henry Hunt.
• They wanted to express their dissatisfaction.
• The Government had ordered the militia NOT
to arrest Henry Hunt as they thought this may
cause a riot.
• Despite their instructions the militia did
attempt to arrest Hunt. This caused outrage
and violence broke out.
Q 25
What were the
outcomes of the
Peterloo massacre?
A 25
• Short term:
– 7 people were killed
– 400 people were injured
• Long term the government introduced new legislation
due to fear of revolution:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Possession of weapons banned
New powers given to magistrates to get trials hurried up
Magistrates given power to search homes
New taxes put on newspapers to make them expensive
Public meeting over 50 banned
Marching and weapon practice banned
Q 26
What were the
causes of the
Rebecca Riots?
A 26
• Poverty
– Farmers being asked to pay tolls on main trade route
roads.
– Increased food prices.
• Democracy
– People in West Wales wanted to be represented by
Welsh people.
• Social
– Many of the people involved in these Riots felt
repressed by people who were either English or just
generally higher in society than they were.
Q 27
What were the
Rebecca Riots?
A 27
•
•
•
•
A number of different violent protest.
Toll gates were destroyed.
Public officials were threatened.
Characterised by vandals dressing up as
women to avoid identification.
• The government attempted to put an end to
these riots by sending police and soldiers into
west Wales to support local law enforcement.
Q 28
What were the
outcomes of the
Rebecca Riots?
A 28
• Short term:
– 7 arrests
– 1 death
• Long term the government introduced new
legislation in response to the riots:
– More welsh magistrates were created.
– Tolls for farmers were reduced.
– The use of the welsh language was NOT
introduced
Back to topic selection screen
Crime and
Punishment In
th
the 20 Century
Q 01
The
Franchise
A 01
• Another term for having the right to vote.
Q 02
Sufferage
A 02
• The process of getting the right to vote
Q 03
Suffragists
A 03
• A group of women, who in the early 20th
century campaigned for women to have the
right to vote.
• They pursued this through peaceful and
political methods.
Q 04
Suffragettes
A 04
• A group of women, who in the early 20th
century campaigned for women to have the
right to vote.
• They pursued this through violence and civil
disobedience.
Q 05
Hunger
Strikes
A 05
• When the suffragettes were arrested for their
actions many of them would choose not to eat
in prion as a continued form of protest.
Q 06
Cat and
Mouse Act
A 06
• Following bad press linked to force feeding the
government passed a law to release women
on hunger strike from prison once they
became weak.
• This made any illness as a result of hunger
strikes the woman’s fault.
• Any wrong doing of any kind committed by
the women once she was released would
result in further imprisonment
Q 07
Juvenile
Court
A 07
• Specific court set up to deal with criminal
cases involving children.
Q 08
Approved
School
A 08
• Schools set up for criminal children.
• These were based on the model of the borstal
schools.
Q 09
Youth
detention
A 09
• Following a high re-offending rate of those
who had attended Approved schools Youth
detention centres were set up.
• These were less about reforming children and
more about punishing them.
• They were popular, but the re offending rate
went from 60% up to 75%.
Back to topic selection screen
General Crime
and Punishment
Terms
Q 01
Deterrent
A 01
• When a crime is punished in a harsh way to
put people off re-offending or to put others
off committing the same crime.
Q 02
Reform
A 02
• This means to change.
• Many people want punishments to be
designed to reform (or change) people so they
become better citizens.
Q 03
Police
A 03
• People who’s job it is to prevent crime or in
some cases catch criminals after an offence
has been committed.
Q 04
Jury
A 04
• A group of people who are responsible for
reaching a decision of guilty or not guilty in a
court case.
Q 05
Criminal
Case
A 05
• A case that involves someone who has broken
an established law.
• They are considered criminals.
• Examples would include theft, murder or
arson.
Q 06
Civil Case
A 06
• Disputes between two parties or two people
who want the law to decide.
• These are not criminal cases, no laws have
been broken.
• Examples would be land disputes or divorce.
Q 07
Abolish
A 07
• To get rid of something.
• For example when slavery was banned the
legal ability to own a slave was abolished.
Q 08
Incarceration
A 08
• To be kept in a prison of some sort.
Q 09
Treason
A 09
• To commit a crime against the state or the
King/Queen.
Q 10
Capital
Punishment
A 10
• Execution.
• This is the punishment for a capital crime.
Back to
title slide
Summary Mind Maps
The following slides are basic summaries of the 5 main time periods.
These mind maps do not show everything you need to know, but do show the
time period divided up into the 5 major themes of this development study.
These themes are:
Causes of Crime
Typical Crimes
Policing (crime prevention)
Law & Justice
Punishment
Click a time period symbol to jump straight to that map.
Back to map selection
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Back to
title slide

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