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THE HEROES OF THE
TROJAN WAR
Part Four
Edith Hamilton
THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS
 Evil goddess of Discord, Eris, not popular with the gods.
 At the marriage of King Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis, she threw a golden apple
into the banquet hall, marked For The Fairest.
 The choice of who would get the apple was narrowed down to Aphrodite, Hera, and
Athena
 Zeus was asked to choose, wisely he refused to.
 Zeus told the goddesses to go to the Prince of Troy, Paris to decide.
 Priam, Paris’ father, was told Paris would be the downfall of his kingdom, so he
placed Paris on a hilltop as a shepherd boy to keep him out of trouble.
 He chose Aphrodite, who promised him the fairest woman in the world would be his.
THE TROJAN WAR
 Helen- daughter of Zeus and Leda
 Tyndareus, her mother’s husband, chose Menelaus as her
husband, and made him King of Sparta too.
 Aphrodite led Paris to Helen.
 When Menelaus left to go to Crete, Helen and Paris had an
affair and ran away back to Troy together.
THE TROJAN WAR
 Menelaus called upon all of Greece to go and get Helen back.
 Odysseus- King of the island of Ithaca, pretended to be mad so
he would not have to go tot war, but was foiled by the messenger
and was sent to war.
 Achilles- kept back by his mother, dressed in woman’s clothes
to disguise himself, was found by Odysseus.
 The Greek army all met up at Aulis ( place of dangerous and
treacherous winds and currents).
 In order for Artemis to calm the winds, the commander and
chief of the army, Agamemnon, would have to sacrifice his
daughter.
THE TROJAN WAR
ARRIVAL AT TROY
 First man ashore was Protesilaus.
 Oracle had said the first man to reach shore in Troy would die.
 Protesilaus died and was honored by the army for his brave
deed.
 Hector- eldest son of Priam and Paris’ older brother.
 Knew he would escape the war with his life, just like Achilles.
 Agamemnon and Achilles started to feud against each other, of course over a woman.
 Agamemnon had held captive the daughter of Apollo’s priest, Chryseis.
 When her father came to beg for her release, Agamemnon refused.
 Apollo heard and answered the priests’ prayers and sent sickness and death down on
the Greek army.
 When Chryseis had left, Agamemnon sent two of his soldiers to Achilles’ tent to take
away his maiden, Briseis.
 Achilles swore Agamemnon would pay for his wrongdoings.
 Achilles’ mother, Thetis, went to Zeus begging him to end the
war.
 He was reluctant, but Hera was so annoying that he had a child
with Thetis.
 Zeus was going to end the war in the favor of the Trojans, so
when he was rude to Hera she devised a plan to help the Greeks
win.
 Achilles was left behind in his tent, and the Greeks attacked the
great wall.
 The armies fought and finally divided up and standing the middle
was Paris and Menelaus.
 When Paris got in trouble, Aphrodite swept him up and he
vanished.
 Athena now interfered and persuaded a Trojan soldier to shoot an
arrow at Menelaus and wounded him.
 Diomedes was the hero now since Achilles was left behind.
 Diomedes led the Greek army against the Trojans, and with the
courage from Hera and the help from Athena, was able to throw a
spear into the body of Ares, making the battle fair again.
 Zeus stood by the Trojans and gave them strength to make the
Greeks retreat to their beach
 Agamemnon sent gifts to Achilles apologizing but it was no use.
 Hera saw the troubled Greeks and Zeus sitting up on Mount Ida
in Troy and decided to enchant Zeus and distract him from helping
the Trojans long enough for the Greeks to get back into this war.
 Sent Iris to tell Poseidon to retreat from battle and once again
the war was against the Greeks.
 Patroclus, one of Achilles’ beloved friends, put on his armor and
went to war pretending to be Achilles.
 Hector ended up killing him and put on Achilles’ armor.
 A soldier came back and told Achilles what had happened and
went to battle with Athena at his side.
 Being tricked by Athena, Hector finally found his doom.
 Achilles tied his body to his chariot and drug the body back to
camp.
 Zeus became angry and told Priam to go get his son’s body.
 He brought Hector’s body back to Troy and gave him a proper
funeral pyre.
GODS WHO SIDED WITH THE
GREEKS:
Hephaestus
Athena
Hera
Poseidon
GODS WHO SIDED WITH THE
TROJANS:
Aphrodite
Apollo
Ares
Artemis
Hermes
THE ADVENTURES OF
ODYSSEUS
WHO IS ODYSSEUS
 Odysseus King of Ithaca
 Husband to Penelope
 Father of Telemachus
 Son of Laertes and Anticlea
 Known for his swift resourcefulness in the face of adversity
 Odysseus is one of the first Greek mythic heroes renowned for
his brain as well as his muscle
 Weakness was lustfulness
 Odysseus enjoys women
 Most famous the 10 eventful years he took to return home
after the Trojan-War
 Received constant help from the Gods
 Athena disguised him, Zeus freed him, Hermes gave him the
herb to resist magic.
 Also battled against Poseidon, Odysseus blinded Poseidon's
son.
THE FALL OF TROY
THE BEGINNING
 Achilles kills Memnon and this makes the Trojans fall back
 Paris then kills Achilles
 Apollo helps
THE ADVENTURES OF
AENEAS
THE BEGINNING
 Achilles kills Memnon and this makes the Trojans fall back
 Paris then kills Achilles
 Apollo helps
THE DEATH OF ACHILLES
 Thetis and the River of Styx
 THE REASON
THE ARMOUR
 Achilles armor
 Should be given to Odysseus or Ajax
 Odysseus was chosen
 Ajax kills himself
THE CAPTURE
 Trojan Prophet Helenus
 States that Troy can only be beaten by the bow and arrows of
Hercules
THE PLAN
 The sacred image of Athena
 Odysseus creates a plan
 Sinon stays behind and talks to the Trojans as if he was a traitor
THE ATTACK
 The hollow horse
 At night the Greeks show themselves
 Hectors son is killed
FROM TROY TO ITALY
 Aeneas was the son of Venus and Archises
 Fought for the Trojans
 Bested only by Hector
 Escaped from Troy with his mother’s help after the Greeks
captured it
 Many Trojan troops escaped with him in search of new home
FROM TROY TO ITALY
 Aeneas had a dream telling him his destiny was for he and his
men to settle in Italy (Hesperia)
 They left from the island of Crete
 First faced and defeated the Harpies
 Then they met Andromache, Hector’s wife, and her husband,
Helenus, the Trojan prophet
FROM TROY TO ITALY
 Helenus told Aeneas to land on the west coast of Italy to avoid
the Greeks and the beasts known as Scylla and Charybdis
 They left and sailed southwest towards Sicily and ran into many
cyclopes’, including Polyphemus
 Were able to escape thanks to the help of one of Odysseus’
men that was stranded in Sicily
FROM TROY TO ITALY
 Struck by horrific storm summoned by Juno to stop Aeneas
from settling Rome
 Neptune helped Aeneas because Juno upset him by going
behind his back and creating such a storm
 Aeneas landed in Carthage, a city founded by a woman named
Dido
TROY TO ITALY
 Venus sent Cupid to make Dido fall in love with Aeneas to help
him in whatever way he needed
 Jupiter was displeased with Aeneas’ time spent in Carthage so
Mercury was sent to tell him to continue on with his journey
 Dido killed herself in response to Aeneas’ departure
THE DESCENT INTO THE
LOWER WORLD
 Aeneas found the cave of Sibyl of Cumae after Helenus told him
to do so
 Sibyl of Cumae was a woman of deep wisdom that could
foresee the future
 She said she would guide him through the underworld and take
him to his father for advice
 First he had to find a golden bough so he could enter Hades
THE DESCENT INTO THE
LOWER WORLD
 Charon the ferryman let them enter the underworld after
Aeneas presented the golden bough
 Passed the Fields of Mourning where Aeneas saw Dido who did
not look or answer him
 Sibyl and Aeneas arrived at Elysian Fields where they found his
father, Archises
THE DESCENT INTO THE
LOWER WORLD
 Archises led Aeneas to Lethe, the river of forgetfulness, where
he showed Aeneas the future Romans and told him how to
establish his home in Italy
 Sibyl and Aeneas returned to earth and the Trojans set sail for
the coast of Italy
THE WAR IN ITALY
 The Latin’s and Rutulians were the most powerful people in
Hesperia
 Aeneas was set to marry Lavinia, the daughter of the Latium
King, but Juno stepped in to stop the marriage
 Juno summoned Alecto, one of the Furies from Hades to cause
chaos for Aeneas
 Alecto caused Lavinia’s mother to oppose the marriage
THE WAR IN ITALY
 Then Alecto told the King of the Rutulians that Lavinia was soon
to be married, knowing this would upset him because he planned
to marry her
 Alecto’s third plan was tricking Aeneas’ son, Ascanius, into
killing a stag that was highly regarded by all the Latin people
 The Latins and Rutulians joined forces to fight Aeneas and the
other Trojans
THE WAR IN ITALY
 The Trojan camp was being heavily attacked while Aeneas was
away gaining forces
 If it had not been for Nisus and Euryalus, the Trojans would
have died and Aeneas would never have gained power
 Nisus and Euryalus left during the night and silently killed more
than half of the Latin and Rutulian warriors
THE WAR IN ITALY
 Nisus and Euryalus were able to fend off the invading soldiers
long enough for Aeneas and his men to return, but not before the
two men died
 The reinforcements proved to be too much for the Latin's and
Rutulian’s and Aeneas defeated Turnus, the King of Rutulium, to
become ruler
 Aeneas married Lavinia and founded the Roman race

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