Document

Report
Managing the sustainability of events
and festivals – Towards an
international classification system
ZEN Project
Andres Coca-Stefaniak
Ian Bathgate
Zero-impact Cultural Heritage Event Network
(ZEN)
ZEN project’s approach
• Transnationality (IT, UK, LT, LV, GR, RO, BG, SL,
NL, ESP) and practice-based research
ZEN project’s aims
• European innovation in the development,
management and evaluation of sustainable
cultural events in historic town centres
• Can an event have zero impact on the
environment?
2012 pan-Euopean survey festival goers
(Moore, 2013)
• 49.8% would pay higher ticket price to make
festival greener
• 43% had changed behaviour as a result of
festival’s green initiative(s)
• Waste, traffic and noise seen as key negative
impacts
• Responsibility for impact – festival organiser
(but also festival goers – 79%)
Sample size: 2,281
Buckinghamshire New University
Why evaluate impacts of events?
• City image (Richards and Wilson,
2004)
• Justify public spending (Faulkner
et al, 2003)
• Host communities getting best
possible benefits (Chalip, 2004;
O’Brien 2006)
• Lasting legacy for communities
(Ritchie, 2000)
Example of legacy-focused
evaluation framework
Sport and physical
activity
2012 Olympic and
Paralympic impacts
Economic
Climate change
Air
Environmental
Noise and light
Land
Ecosystems
Water
Waste
DCMS (2012; p. 22)
Culture and
community
From monitoring to legacy and … beyond?
Outcom Objective
e sub
area
Source
Noise
and light
Mayor of
• Noise levels
London’s
• Light levels
Five Legacy
Commitment
s
Deliver a
sustainable Games
and develop
sustainable
communities
Output
indicators
Monitoring
DCMS (2012; p. 35)
Outcome
indicators
• Impact on
residents,
visitors and
businesses
measured
through
surveys
Legacy
Events research and practice
in the UK
Holistic
understanding
of events
2010 and beyond
Partnership management
2000
Legacy
Culture
Mid
1990s
Early 1990s
1980s
Community
interaction
Urban renewal
Resident attitudes
Environmental impact
Social (local) impact
Segmentation-led promotion
Place experience marketing
Destination image
Urban tourism
Hallmark events
Mega events
Economic impact
Coca-Stefaniak (2012) - on-going research
Rural festivals
Review of event management academic
papers in “Festival Management and Event
Tourism”
(adapted from Getz, 2002)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Economic impact (26 articles)
Corporate sponsorship and marketing (14 articles)
Marketing and segmentation (11 articles)
Other management issues (9 articles)
Visitor and participant motives (7 articles)
Education, training, accreditation, research (7 articles)
Politics, policy and planning (4 articles)
Urban renewal (2 articles)
Law (1 article)
Arts and culture (1 article)
Early ZEN project
research findings
• Event environmental stewardship as
promotion element (IT)
• Transition from spontaneity to visitorfocused event planning (BG)
• Events closely linked to local and regional
branding campaigns (LV)
• Accreditation of good sustainability
practices (Green Key, NL)
• Identity – heritage-led event transition from
Communism to market-led economy (LT,
LV)
• Cost efficiencies and external funding
through environmental innovation (UK, IT)
Towards an international typology of
sustainable cultural events
Mega event
Public
funding
Low ‘core’
carbon
footprint
High ‘core’
carbon
footprint
Private
funding
Micro event
Coca-Stefaniak (2013), on-going research
So what? …
Moving research forward in
evaluation of sustainable events
•
•
•
•
•
•
Events as test beds for innovation in sustainable
solutions (e.g. EU-wide accreditation system?)
Events as more than standard bearers (vis-a-vis
strategic place branding)
CSR research v. event environmental impact research
Marketing ‘authenticity’ or commoditification of visitor
experience?
Experiential marketing strategies?
Government policy impact (e.g. Welsh Assembly
Sustainable Development Bill)
Thank you
Dr. Andres Coca-Stefaniak
[email protected]
Ian Bathgate
[email protected]
www.zen-project.eu
References
- Coca-Stefaniak J.A., Rinaldi R., Parker C. and Quin S. (2009), “Evolution of town
centre and place management models: a European perspective”, Cities, 26 (2), pp.
74-80.
- Coca-Stefaniak J.A. (2012), Evolution of international town centre management
models, Doctoral thesis, Middlesex University.
- Chalip L (2004), Beyond impact: A general model for host community event
leverage. In: Ritchie B and Adair D (eds.), Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts
and Issues, Clevedon: Channel View Publications, pp. 226-252.
- DCMS (2012), London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Impacts and Legacy
Evaluation Framework Final Report, Department for Culture, Media and Sport,
http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/DCMS_2012_Games_Meta_evaluati
on_Report_1.pdf (accessed 24 August 2012)
- Faulkner B, Chalip L, Brown G, Jago L, March R and Woodside A (2003),
“Monitoring the tourism impacts of the Sydney 2000 Olympics”, Event Management,
6 (4), pp. 231-246.
References
- Getz D (2002), “Event studies and event management: On becoming and
academic discipline”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 9 (1), pp. 1223.
- Innes J E and Boother D E (2000), “Indicators for sustainable communities: A
strategy building on complexity theory and distributed intelligence”, Planning Theory
& Practice, 1 (2), pp. 173-186.
- Mega V and Pedersen J (1998), Urban sustainability indicators, European
Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions,
http://eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/1998/07/en/1/ef9807en.pdf (accessed 22
August 2012)
- Moore T (2013), Audience attitudes on the environmental impact of events
CM&SS/AGF, http://www.agreenerfestival.com/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/BucksAGF_AUDIENCE_RESEARCH_2012.pdf (accessed 10 May, 2013).
- O’Brien D (2006), Event business leveraging: The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games,
Annals of Tourism Research, 33 (1), pp. 240-261.
References
- Ritchie J R B (2000), “Turning 16 days into 16 years through Olympic Legacies”,
Event Management, 6, pp. 155-165.
- Richards G and Wilson J (2004), “The impact of cultural events on city image:
Rotterdam, Cultural Capital of Europe 2001”, Urban Studies, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp.
1931-1951.
- Wood E. (2009), “An impact evaluation framework: local government community
festivals”, Event Management, Vol. 12, No. 3/4, pp. 171-185.

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