The Golden Age of the Spanish Empire 1500-1650

The Golden Age of the
Spanish Empire
A review of Chapter 17
Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4
The Rise and Decline of the
Spanish Empire 1500s – 1600s
When we last saw Columbus…
• Where did he
land? Where did
he think he
• Conquistadors
– Cortes: How
did he commit
his troops to
war with the
– Results?
The Columbian Exchange
• A Crash Course…
The thesis is your mast…
• MAST : make a strong
• Deliberately decide on
& Use Key Words
• The mast must be
attached firmly to the
hull (intro)…
• Without it, you cannot
hoist sails and move…
The thesis must present an argument.
• Can I reasonably argue the opposite?
• 1. No
3. Yes
• Although 1, 2 because of 3.
Cortes meets the Aztecs
• Disadvantages:
– Overwhelmingly outnumbered
– Not on his “home” territory
• Advantages:
– Myth of Quetzalcoatal
– Weapons
• steel swords
• armor
• crossbows
– Horses
– Donna Marina, or Malinche,
the invaluable aide
16th c Spanish Drawing
Tenochtitlan (Mexico City today)
Why would Montezuma let Cortes into
A: Cortes is the much feared God – Quetzalcoatl
• After days of sight-seeing, Spaniards take
Montezuma as prisoner
• Then, Aztecs rise up against Spaniards –
Montezuma seems to be a puppet
• Who/what killed Montezuma?
• Cortes Flees
• Aztecs out for blood
• 1521 – Cortes returns
to Tenochtitlan with
a growing army
Where does he get
more men ?
Pizarro 1532
• Coast of Peru with 200 soldiers
“Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru” (Atahualpa)
by John Everett Millais
Expedition Similarities:
Cortes and Pizarro
Spaniards are outnumbered
European weapons are superior
Fervent desire for gold
Initial “friendly” visit is arranged
Local resentful natives help the Europeans
Outbreak of European diseases among Indians
Ambush and capture of kings
Death of Indian rulers; Pizarro orders Atahualpa’s
Spaniards Explored Widely
• Why?
– Gold, Glory, God (that is, to spread Christianity)
• The Ageing Governor of PR: Ponce de Leon
– What does he hope to find?
– Desoto follows
Gold in the Southwest?
• Coronado – Great Plains,
Grand Canyon
“El Dorado”
Philip II, son of Charles V
r. 1556-1598
“When Spain moves, the
whole world trembles.”
San Lorenzo de Le Escorial
(see next slide)
– Palace
– Burial site of Spanish kings,
• including Charles V and Philip II, also
Philip III and IV.
– Library and intellectual center for Counter
Back in Spain, San Lorenzo de El Escorial
Philip II’s Goals
• Strengthen Spanish
monarchy and _________
–In Greece his navy defeated
the____________ at the Battle of
–___________ were more difficult
• Revolt in The Netherlands
• Marries Mary Tudor, a Catholic, but then she dies…
• And another Catholic queen is executed
• England was a tempting target
Queen Mary I - Bloody Mary
• Became Queen after
• Restored _________ in
England, persecuted
• A political marriage to
______, King of Spain!!!
Why did Spain become weaker?
• Chain of Events…
1. F and I’s Inquisition
drives out many
middle class Jews
2. Unable to
3. Spending too much
gold and silver
4. Inflation
5. Spanish Armada
• Protestant forces
1588: A Historical Turning Point
Don Quixote de la Mancha
By Miguel de Cervantes
• First novel ever! 1605
• Satirized chivalry and
traditional ways
– Decline of Spain
• Servant: Sancho Panza
Spanish Art and Literature
• El Greco (the Greek)
– Painted Catholic Saints and Martyrs
–Look at the next two paintings,
compare Rembrandt with El
•What do you notice about the
style? The content?
“The Burial of the
Count of Orgaz”
El Greco
“The Adoration of the
- El Greco
Dutch Art: “The Clothmakers Guild” by Rembrandt, 1662
Philip II Fights a Revolution
United Provinces of the Netherlands
• Calvinist Netherlands rebel
against Philip II
– William of Orange (though he’s
Catholic) – nationalism!!!
War: 1568-78
– Dutch sacrifice :___________?
• Nether=under or beneath (what?)
– Southern provinces of the Spanish
Netherlands remain Spanish: later
becomes the nation of
The Netherlands flourishes
• The individualistic Dutch
– Officially Protestant
– Tolerant
Many Spanish Jews flee to Holland
The Pilgrims go to Holland
…before they go to Massachusetts
Commercial Revolution
Capitalism Born
• Amsterdam: “The Florence of
the north”
– Joint stock companies
– Empire of commerce
– Dutch East India Company
• Tulips from Ottoman Empire
• Spices and tea from _____
– Dutch West India Company
• Sugar from St. Maarten
Notable Joint Stock Companies
• Dutch East India Company…
– 17 Dutchmen put their money together
• British East India Shipping Co.
• (Which, in the movie, tried to capture the
pirate Jack Sparrow!)
– They dealt in sugar, spices, beaver pelts,
and slaves (amongst others).
In France, Mean Queen
Catherine de Medici rules
– Her Weakling Sons
• Son king Charles has a Huguenot advisor
• She orders his advisor assassinated
• Sad, he tells her, leave none to accuse me.
• St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572
12,000 Huguenots slaughtered in Paris alone
• Up to 100,000 through months following in France
Francois Dubois, Eye Witness Account of St. Barts Day Massacre
Dynastic War in France
Bourbon v Guise
Catherine di Medici, mother of King Charles &
daughter of Lorenzo of Florence was unhappy
with Hueguenot Henry marrying into the family…
Henry IV of Navarre
Henry IV Emerges in France, Catholic v
Protestant War (1569-89)
Philip II of Spain’s support of Catholic family backfired
• Bourbon: Huguenot
• Guise: Catholic
• Results in: French nationalism
– French choose a Bourbon, Henry IV
– But Henry converts to Catholicism to promote unity especially in
King Henry issues the Edict of Nantes (1598)
– Religious toleration
– Huguenots may live in peace, just not in Paris
Strengthening France In the Thirty Years War
Cardinal Richelieu Increased French Nationalism
Henry’s son King Louis
XIII is weak, takes
throne at 9
• Cardinal Richelieu’s
1. Restricted rights of
2. Allied Kings with
middle class for
3. Built up military to
fight Hapsburgs
What does Richelieu think of the
common people of France?
Read primary source in
• He was both Duke of
Richelieu & Cardinal in
• Effectively ran France
from 1624-42

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