CHAPTER 2 Topic #9 – The First People Date – 9/17/13 WAR: 1st, 6th, 7th period - Draw some pictures that you think best represent your life. If these were cave drawings, what would an archeologist say about your life? 3rd, 4th, 5th period – Think of a sentence you would like to tell one of your neighbors. Then, without talking or writing down the words, try to communicate that to them in one minute. You may use body language, sounds, or pictures, but that is all. Then, switch and have the other student try to tell you something using the same method. When you are finished, write 3-5 sentences on the WAR side of your ISN describing your experience and how you felt throughout that time. SECTION 1: THE FIRST PEOPLE Prehistory: the time before writing was invented, which includes the STONE AGE. The first humans lived during the Stone Age. The Stone Age is divided into 3 periods based upon the type of tools that were made: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Tool: any handheld object that has been changed to help a person do a task. What is the Paleolithic Era? AKA The Old Stone Age Lasted until about 10,000 years ago Tools were made out of sharpened stones or bones Most were used to cut food More advanced tools were made over time such as the hand ax and spear As tools developed, people formed societies, communities of people who share the same culture What is the Paleolithic Era? (cont.) Early humans lived in hunter-gatherer societies Spoken language developed over time Artwork during this time were carved figures made of stone, ivory or bone, and cave paintings, which may have had religious meaning Very little is known about their religious beliefs WIO: List some hardships that early huntergatherers faced as suggested by the picture on p. 32. Topic #10 – Early Migration Date 9/18/13 WAR: Take out homework for grading Read p. 36-37 and answer the Reading Check question on p. 37 SECTION 2: EARLY HUMAN MIGRATION Climate patterns around the world began to change the earth’s geography People had to migrate, or move to new places to survive Stone Cold http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VsvaFxkXrbg What are the Ice Ages? 1.6 million years ago, the Earth experienced long periods of freezing weather called the Ice Ages Ocean levels were lower than today and places that are underwater now used to be dry land! Land bridges were exposed allowing people to move more easily to other continents Ex: The Bering Strait Land Bridge, which connected Asia to N. America How did early humans settle in new lands? Migration took hundreds of thousands of years Began in Africa about 2 million years ago Early humans branched out to other continents such as Asia, Europe, Australia, and even on to North and South America Must have used land bridges to move around Open your textbooks to page 37 and let’s analyze the map of Early Human Migration. How did people adapt to new environments? Fire- kept people warm Sewed animal skins to keep warm Took up shelter in caves or built small dwellings Developed new types of tools during the Mesolithic Era such as hooks, spears, bow and arrow (still used stone and bone) Developed new technology such as canoes, pottery, and keeping pets for protection and hunting such as dogs. I like to move it, move it There are two types of migration: voluntary and forced. Which of these do you think early humans took part in? Write three lines to a song that they may have sung while traveling. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMuJxd2Gpxo Title #11 – Beginning of Agriculture Date 9/19/13 WAR: 1st, 6th, 7th period: Read p. 41 and answer the following question: What was the Neolithic Revolution? 3rd, 4th, 5th period: Read p. 41-42 and answer the following question: Which do you think had more significant results – the domestication of plants or animals? Section 3: Beginnings of Agriculture The discovery that plants grew from seeds was one of the major advances of the late Stone Age This created a tidal wave of changes and advances that swept across the world! What is the Neolithic Age? AKA the New Stone Age began about 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia Learned to make drills and saws out of stone and how to make fire This age ended when people began to make tools out of metal and how to produce food How was farming “discovered”? The climate began to warm up and new plants began to grow such as barley and wheat People began to settle where these new plants grew Soon learned they could plant seeds themselves This shift from gathering plants to planting them is called the Neolithic Revolution First occurred in Southwest Asia What is domestication? It is the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful People began to plant only the largest grains and sweetest fruits, which led to agriculture, or farming. People also learned how to use animals such as keeping herds of sheep or cattle to use for food and clothing Also used animals for heavy pulling or transportation Using animals greatly improved farming How did farming change societies? Because of farming, people could focus on other activities People used plant fibers and domesticated animals to make cloth Began to build permanent settlements World’s population began to grow as people were able to control their food production Specialization in jobs (basket-weaving, tool-making, etc.) How did farming change societies? (cont.) Religious groups began to form and people put up megaliths, huge stones used as monuments Ex: Stonehenge in England Prehistoric gods probably represented air, water, fire, or earth People prayed to their ancestors (ancestral worship) WIO How did farming contribute to the growth of towns?