Physical Development Ages 1-3 - Ms. J. Poirier`s Teacher Webspace

Report
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT AGES 1-3
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Toddlers:
-
Most children begin walking a few unsteady steps about the time of their
first birthday
-
Toddler is frequently defined as: children from the age of first walking,
usually around twelve months, until the age of 3 years
-
By the age 4 children are able to walk steadily, hop, jump, and run easily
-
At this age it is important to put aside some time to exercise and play in
order to exercise muscles and use stored up energy
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Height and Weight:
-
The influences of heredity and environment are evident on the height
and weight during age 2
-
As a result a tall 2 year old will most likely be a tall adult
AVERAGE
HEIGHT
WEIGHT
Age
Height
Weight
1 year
29.8”
75.5cm
22.5 pounds
2 years
34.0”
86.4cm
27.7 pounds
3 years
37.7”
95.8cm
32.4 pounds
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Proportion and Posture:
-
Until age 2 a child’s head, chest, and abdomen all have the same circumference
because all three grow at a rapid rate
-
Between ages 2 and 3 the chest becomes larger than the head and abdomen
-
The rapid growth of a child’s arms, legs, and trunk during this time improve their
balance and motor skills
-
By age 2 the toddler stands straighter, abdomen still protrudes, head is still located
forward and knees and elbows remain slightly bent
-
While running they keep balance by holding arms outstretched and by pushing their
belly forward
-
By age 3 the posture improves greatly has spine has strengthened and child has lost
some baby weight
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Teeth:
-
One year olds have 8 teeth
-
Two years olds have 16 teeth as 8 more come in during the year
-
By three a child has a total of 20 teeth
-
In order to help children keep their teeth healthy a parent should do
certain things like increasing calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intake
within the first two years
-
Furthermore, there is a protective mechanism inherited from the parents
that discourages decay. Ask your dentist if your child has this
mechanism or not to ensure further care if needed
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Motor Skills:
- Physical development proceeds according to these patterns:
Head  Foot
Near  Far
Simple  Complex
- Motor Skills are broken into two categories
-
Large Motor Skills: abilities that depend on the use and control of the
large muscles of the back, legs, shoulders and arms
-
Small Motor Skills: abilities that depend on the use and control of the
finer muscles of the wrists, fingers, and ankles. Many of these skills
require hand eye coordination.
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Motor Skills Continued:
-
Children do not acquire physical skills as predictably as they had within
their first year
Some children learn later or sooner than average because of these
variations:
- Physical size
- Health and diet
- Interest
- Temperament
- Opportunities for play
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Large Motor Skills:
- Physical exercise and repeated practice of actions are necessary for this
development
-
Typically slow and steady, but follows a pattern
-
Builds upon earlier learning
-
Ex) children learn to go up the stairs on hands and knees  walk up the
stairs with help  use the railing for help but continue to place both feet on
each step  at age three alternate feet on each step
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jr0bXVlBd3A
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Large Motor Skills Continued:
Age
Large Motor Skills
1 - 1.5 years
-
Walking well
Stoops to pick up toys
1.5 – 2 years
-
Stands on one foot
Throws object overhand
2 - 2.5 years
-
Climbs everything
pushes on wheeled toys
2.5 – 3 years
-
Runs, but can’t stop smoothly
Kicks balls
Itsy Bitsy Spider and Head and Shoulders
3 – 4 years
-
Walks on tiptoes
Rides a tricycle
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Small Motor Skills:
- At two year olds have improved manipulation: skillful use of hands and fingers
Age
Small Motor Skills
1 – 1.5 years
-
Turn pages of a book (a couple of pages at a
time)
Scribbles
1.5 – 2 years
-
Buttons large buttons
Turns door knobs
2 – 2.5 years
-
Strings large beads
Builds 6 block tower
2.5 – 3 years
-
Draws lines and circles
Screws lids off containers
3 - 4 years
-
Cuts with scissors
Uses forks and spoons with little spilling
PROVIDING
CARE FOR
CHILDREN AGES
1-3
PROVIDING CARE
Feeding:
-
Food at this child’s age influences eating habits for the rest of their lives
-
1 year old
- At this age babies enjoy baby food, mashed/boiled potatoes, rice, cooked vegetables
- Give children at this age finger food to improve coordination and encourage self-feeding
-
2 year old
- At two mealtimes often become battle of the wits. Babies want to feed themselves and
choose what to eat when.
- Create dislikes and like but encourage child to try something they did not like one meal in
another
- Feeds themselves with a fork while experimenting with textures
- Conversation may distract child while eating but socialization is very important during a
meal
PROVIDING CARE
Feeding Continued:
-
3 year old
- At this age children eat the same food as the rest of the family but still
requires rough meats to be cut up in order to prevent choking
- Requires food for growth and energy
- Needs 3 meals and nutritional snacks throughout the day
PROVIDING CARE
Choosing Food:
-
It is important at this age to start your child on a healthy diet
-
Give meals that are low in salt, low in preservatives and high in vitamins
-
There are 5 ways to promote interest in nutritious foods to toddlers
- Color: a variety of bright colors
- Texture: use a variety of textures ie) crunchy, smooth, seedy
- Shape: cut food like sandwiches and fruit into new interesting shapes
- Temperature: young kids are sensitive to temperature. Keep cool meals
with cool items and hot with hot items
- Ease of Eating: cut food so a child is able to digest it better
PROVIDING CARE
Mealtime Tips:
-
Keeps meals on a regular schedule so child does not have to wait
-
Use a dish with sides for the child to push the spoon against in order to
get the food
-
Use child-sized utensils
-
Never use food as a punishment ex) you will get a cookie once you
finish your vegetables. This makes the child believe that cookies are
good and vegetables bad.
-
Set good table manners as children imitate others
PROVIDING CARE
Bathing:
-
During ages 1 -3 children establish important attitudes about personal
hygiene
-
Most children are having daily baths at this time
-
Must be supervised at all times
-
Age 1: rubs washcloth over face and stomach
-
Age 2: wash, rinse, and dry body except for neck and back
-
Age 3: bathe themselves
with minimum supervision
PROVIDING CARE
Caring for Teeth:
-
At 18 months encourage children to brush their teeth
-
During this time, they will only swish their front teeth so
they still need adult help
-
Use kid tooth paste – it can be swallowed without
causing the child to feel ill afterwards
-
By age 3 show your kid and help them to floss their teeth
PROVIDING CARE
Dressing:
-
After first birthday babies can pull off clothing items like socks and hats
-
During the ages 13- 14 months they children try to help while getting
dressed
-
During the ages 18 – 24 months toddlers can undress themselves
completely
-
At two years can put on pants but struggle with shirts
-
3 year olds can dress independently except for challenging buttons or
tying shoe laces
PROVIDING CARE
Choosing Clothes:
-
There are three important items to consider while buying clothes for a
baby
1) Comfort: fabric that allows freedom of movement, must be the right size
2) Durability: must be made of strong thread, fasteners are firmly attached
- Natural Fibers: absorbs heat
- Synthetic Fibers: durable, wrinkle resistant, quick drying
3) Economy: baby clothes can be expensive so try to choose clothes that are
on sale or that has some growing room. Also, try buying clothing that are on
sale
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lh5ROGCt2MY&feature=related
PROVIDING CARE
Sleeping:
-
At the age of two, children no longer take their morning nap but sleep
longer during the night
-
Children begin to call parents back into their room for water or another
story because they want someone to be near them
-
At the age of 3, naps are given up all together and often get out of bed
because they have had nightmares
-
During both ages the fear of the dark begins.
PROVIDING CARE
Toilet Training:
-
Toilet training should begin when a child is physically mature and
emotionally ready
-
-
Physically Mature
- Ability to control sphincter muscles – muscles that control
elimination
- Recognize when body is telling ‘it is time to go’
Never push potty training onto a child. Encourage them and try
again another time if unsuccessful.
-
Use absorbable training pants and a toilet seat or potty for the
child so they can learn to use the washroom themselves
-
Some children are scared of the flush of the toilet, flush once they leave the bathroom
PROVIDING CARE
Safety:
-
There are basic safety hazards one must follow while having children,
these include:
- Wipe up spills immediately to prevent falls
- Make sure all open windows have secure screens
- Remove furniture that can tip easily
- Keep appliances unplugged
- Place safety caps on electrical hazards
- Lock all drawers, doors, and cupboards
CUTE BABIES
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWHpcKXt-qQ&feature=related
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
-
Baby's First Steps. (2007, February 18). Retrieved February 2012, from Youtube:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jr0bXVlBd3A
-
Brisbane, H. E. (1994). The Developing Child. USA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
-
Development Milestones. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Child Development:
http://www.pacwcbt.pitt.edu/Curriculum/911-4%20FP%20and%20Child%20Development/Handouts-9114%20Foster%20Parenting%20and%20Child%20Development/HO%206%20Developmental%20Milestones.p
df
-
Parenting. (2005, May 5). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Missouri Families:
http://missourifamilies.org/features/parentingarticles/parenting11.htm
-
Physical Development age 1-2. (February, 18 2011). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Raising Children:
http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/physical_health_from_age_1_to_2_pbs.html/context/563
-
Physical Development age 2-3. (2010, January 14). Retrieved February 16, 2012, from Raising Children
Network: http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/physical_health_from_age_1_to_2_pbs.html/context/563
-
Word Scramble Maker. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2012, from The Teachers Corner:
http://worksheets.theteacherscorner.net/make-your-own/word-scramble/word-scramble-form.php

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