The Age of Exploration

Report
The Age of Exploration
MesoAmerica
North American Colonies
BACKGROUND
Rise of Monarchies

•
Kings and queens paid for the exploration trips
•
•
Prestige
More territory
Printing Press
•
•
Fed rise of humanism
•
Access to books, more people read accounts of
new lands
Scientific and intellectual inquiry
•
•
Access to maps, navigation tools
BACKGROUND

How did it start?
◦ Prince Henry “The Navigator” of
Portugal
◦ Started a school of navigation in 1420
◦ Didn’t sail, but planned voyages and analyzed
their reports
◦ Astronomers, geographers, mathematicians
shared info with Portuguese sailors and
shipbuilders.
◦ Expert mapmakers updated maps/charts
GEOGRAPHY
GEOGRAPHY

How did geography play a factor in the
pursuit of new lands?
◦
◦
◦
◦
The Turks blocked the trade route from the
Mediterranean Sea to the land route to Asia.
Crusades—European countries tried to regain
control of holy sites that had been taken over by
the Muslims and were exposed to trade items.
Portugal—They didn’t have a Mediterranean port
location and needed an option.
Arabs’ prices were too high. (Middle Man)
SOCIAL

European explorers conquered three
major MesoAmerican empires, greatly
changing their lives and destinies:
◦ Aztecs
◦ Mayans
◦ Incas

All three empires easily conquered
◦ Feared white man: armor, guns = gods
◦ Unrest within
SOCIAL: AZTEC SPRITE
1200 AD – 1535 AD
G: Central Mexico
◦Built capital city of Tenochtitlan
◦Legend: priest had dream, locate city where he
found an eagle holding a snake in his claws on
top of a cactus.
Mexico City
Modern day Mexican flag
S: Ruler, priests
and nobles, warriors
merchants and artisans, farmers, and slaves
P: Empire ruled by emperor
SOCIAL: AZTEC SPRITE
R: Religion
many gods.
was polytheistic: Believed in
◦Used human sacrifices to please the gods.
I: Created
writing system using
hieroglyphics.
T: Built irrigation for crops
E: Traded cacao beans, tools, clothes,
jewelry at local markets; caravans to present
day Guatemala, Belize, Honduras
SOCIAL: MAYA SPRITE
200 AD – 900’s AD
G: Southern Mexico into
Central America
S: Social Classes based on
birth
P: Built city-states ruled by
kings.
R: Polytheistic; Used humans
as sacrifice
SOCIAL: MAYA SPRITE
I: Very
accomplished:
◦Studied stars
◦Developed calendar
◦Created writing system using hieroglyphics
◦Invented system of mathematics with concept of 0


T: Built pyramids as temples
E: Traded among empire/city-states
◦ As currency, cacao beads gave way to stone
beads
◦ Gold, jade and copper = more expensive items
SOCIAL: INCA SPRITE



◦
◦


◦
◦
1200 AD – 1535 AD
G: Modern day Peru along Pacific Ocean
S: “Inka” means ruler
Adapted to Inca by Spanish conquistadors
to refer the people of the area, not the ruler
or his family
Inca a patchwork of people from different
lands
P: Government run by emperor
Civil war within empire favored Spanish
conquest
R: Polytheistic
Believed in reincarnation
SOCIAL: INCA SPRITE

◦
◦
I: Architecture most important of Inca
arts
Machu Picchu
Temples constructed using mortar less
construction


◦
◦
◦
knife couldn’t fit between!
T: Built vast network of roads and
bridges
Terrace farming
E: Traded within empire
High degree of central planning: govt
planned for citizens needs
POLITICAL
Treaty of Tordesillas
(Line of Demarcation)
 Spain got the West
(new world) and
Portugal got the East
(old world)

◦ This is why Brazilians
speak Portuguese but the
rest of SA speaks Spanish
POLITICAL
POLITICAL

OCEAN EXPLORERS
◦ Spain




Columbus: Carribean
Vespucci: South American coast; “Americas”
deBalboa: Hiked mountains; first to see Pacific
Magellan: circumnavigated world; named Pacific
◦ Portugal
 Dias: Explored Africa
 DaGama: Sailed around tip of Africa to India
 Cabral: Explored Brazilian coast; sailed on to India
POLITICAL

INLAND EXPLORERS
◦ Cortez-(Mexico) Conquered the Aztecs, put
the Aztec emperor, Montezuma in prison.
◦ Pizarro-(Peru) Conquered the Incas,
executed their leader, Atahualpa.
Spanish explorers were known as
conquistadors
 They received grants, or special
permission, to explore and claim land.

POLITICAL

NORTH AMERICAN EXPLORERS
◦ Henry Hudson
Sailed for England & Holland/Netherlands
Hudson River (NYC) named for him

Pilgrims
◦ See religion 
RELIGION

MesoAmerica
◦ Native Americas = polytheistic
◦ Europeans = monotheistic / CHRISTIAN,
considered Indian ways barbaric
 ENCOMIENDA: Spanish granted land & Native
Americans to colonists in South America. In return,
convert Indians to Christianity
 Result = Disease, overwork killed millions of Indians
 Lends itself to African slave trade
RELIGION

North America
◦ Pilgrims leave England to escape religious
persecution
◦ Settle in Plymouth, Massachusetts
◦ Indians taught Pilgrims to hunt/fish
 Pilgrims still wary/distrusted Indians
 Long term = leads to displacement of Indians from
their land
 Trail of Tears
INTELLECTUAL/TECHNOLOGY
What were technology changes that
increased exploration?
 Better ships
◦ triangular sail, sturdy rudder

Better tools
◦ Astrolabe, magnetic compass

Better maps
◦ Cartographer—a person who makes/studies maps
Included ocean currents and latitude lines
ECONOMIC

Columbian Exchange
◦ Exchange of plants, animals between continents
◦ Provided new goods to sell, new means of
transportation
◦ Also brought diseases: killed millions of Indians

Mercantilism
◦ Economic principal: nation’s strength depended
on its wealth
 Intense competition between nations 1500-1600’s
ECONOMIC
Wrap Up: 1-2-3-4-5-6 Foldable
Name 1 way the Catholic
Church was involved in
exploration. Do you agree
or disagree with the
Church’s position? Why?
Who were the 2 Spanish
conquistadors responsible
for colonizing South
American? How might SA
be different today had they
not been successful?
Name 3 Native American
groups we examined and
the geographic locations
of their civilizations.
In what ways did the
Columbian Exchange
effect the New World?
Name 2 positive and 2
negative effects.
What 5 items involved in
the Columbian Exchange
do you consider most
important? Defend your
response.
Discuss at least 6 pros and
cons of continued
exploration in our world
today.

similar documents