The New Imperialism

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The New Imperialism
1800-1914
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution had strengthened Western Powers and given them
confidence. This led to aggressive expansion called The New Imperialism.
1870-1914 was the most active time of the Imperialistic activity.
Who are the Western Powers?
Britain, Spain, Germany, Italy, America, Russia, France, etc
Imperialism
Domination by one country of the political, economic or
cultural life of another country or region
A strong nation takes over a weak nation
Motives
Three main causes:
-Economic
-Political/ Military
-Humanitarian
Economic
1. Booming industry needed natural resources and raw
materials for manufactured goods. Materials such as Rubber,
Petroleum, cotton and cocoa were needed in vast quantities.
2. The new factories could produce large quantities of goods.
The Europeans needed new markets to sell their goods.
Political/Military
As new markets opened around the world,
steam ships were relied on to quickly transport
goods. However, the new steam powered ships needed
safe ports to get more coal and supplies. Both merchant
and military ships would access these safe harbors.
Humanitarianism
Some felt it was a duty to spread the blessings of Western Civilization such as
medicine, law, and Christianity.
“Take up the White Man’s Burden
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness
On fluttered folk and wild
Your new-caught, sullen peoples
Half-devil and half-child.”
-Rudyard Kipling
How do you think the natives felt about this
perception as outlined in “The White Man’s Burden”?
Social Darwinism
The social view applied to Charles Darwin’s theory of Survival of the Fittest. It
states that the strongest nations will survive while others perish. To Social
Darwinists, expansion was simply nature’s way of improving the human
species, with Europeans being superior.
**These ideas have promoted Racism**
Why did Imperialism work?
Two parts:
1) Old civilizations were declining including the largest empires:
a) The Ottomans in the Middle East
b) Mughals in India
c) Qing in China
d) West African nations
2) Western Civilizations had industrialized and had
a) Strong economies with well organized
governments
b) Medical knowledge to survive tropical
diseases
c) superior gun power, such as the Maxim
machine gun
Imperial Control
There were 3 types of imperial control
1) Colonies
2) Protectorates
3) Spheres of influence
Colonies
Colonies were run by governors sent by the host country to control the region
directly
Colonies were costly and often required a large occupying force to ensure
absolute control over the region.
Think of the US colonies owned by
Britain in the 16th and 17th centuries.
These colonies were often occupied by
British troops to maintain order and
Enforce taxes.
Protectorates
Local rulers are left in power but they had to accept the “advice” of
the European Advisors on issues such as taxes, trade and foreign
relations.
Protectorates are less costly because they
only require a minimal military commitment,
unless there is a crisis or revolt.
Spheres of Influence
An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment and trading
privileges. The goal is to prevent conflict with other western powers.
The Americans claimed a Sphere of
Influence over all of Latin America
What is Latin America?
British Imperialism
Some nations were VERY good at imperialism. Britain is an example.
Their imperialistic achievements included areas around the world
prompting the phrase:
The Sun never sets on the British Empire
Review
The 19th century term “White Man’s Burden”
reflects the idea that
1. Asians and Africans were equal to Europeans
2. Asians and Africans would be grateful for
European help
3. imperialism was opposed by most Europeans
4. Europeans had a responsibility to improve
the lives of the colonial peoples
Review
In the past, European nations have conquered
other lands, made them into colonies, and
controlled their economies.
Which term refers to the situation described in this
statement?
1. Socialism
2. Isolationism
3. Imperialism
4. monotheism
Review
Throughout the 1800’s, an increased need for both
raw materials and new markets for manufactured
goods led various European nations to pursue
policies of
1.
2.
3.
4.
Imperialism
Socialism
Isolationism
communism
Review
Take up the White Man’s burden—
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.
--Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden”
The phrase “White Man’s burden” in this excerpt refers to the
1. Negative attitude of Europeans toward peoples of the non-Western world
2. Advantages Europeans would gain by colonizing Africa, Asia, and Latin
America
3. Positive role of the Roman Catholic Church in Africa and Asia
4. Challenges non-Europeans faced when trading with the Europeans
African Imperialism
Africa
Before Imperialism Africa was a very
diverse land with hundreds of
languages and cultures. Societies
ranged from centralized government
states, to village communities, to
nomadic hunter-gatherer societies.
However, Africa was full of natural
resources and raw materials, making it
an ideal target.
The Dark Land
Most of Africa was unknown to the Europeans in the 1800’s. They
had just explored the outer edges through the ports where they
traded goods for slaves.
Europeans prior to the 1800s could not
survive the tropical disease rampant in
Africa.
As European nations began to outlaw
slavery, the slave trade died down. This
prompted Europeans to begin exploring
the interior lands of Africa.
North Africa
Fertile lands of the
Mediterranean region, and
the Sahara desert. Various
tribes controlled the region
East Africa
Eastern Coast and Red Sea
allowed successful trading
empire based on selling
African Slaves
West Africa
Grassy plains and forests.
Predominately a Muslim
area loosely ruled by the
Asante kingdom
South Africa
Southern Tip including the
Cape of Good Hope.
Controlled by the Zulus and
Boers
Sierra Leone, 1787
One of the first colonies in Africa was set up by the British. However, it was not
meant as a imperial location for the British. Instead, it was a destination for freed
slaves from Europe and the Americas.
What do you notice about its location?
It is on the coast. Set up prior to the 1800’s before European
exploration.
Exploring Africa
Explorers began by following
the majors African rivers: Nile,
Congo, and Niger
Livingston and Stanley
Dr. David Livingstone explored Africa for 30 years, writing
about the people and cultures he saw. He promoted the end
of slavery and hoped to see the interior of Africa opened to
the world trade system.
In 1871, after many years of silence from
Livingston, Henry Stanley went in search of the
explorer. Upon finding him he greeted him with
“Dr. Livingston, I presume?”
African Scramble
Prior to the scramble there
was limited European
influence in Africa. This all
changed in 1884
Berlin Conference 1884
The Europeans powers meet to discuss the
division of Africa. No Africans were invited.
At the conference they decide:
- a European power cannot claim a part of
Africa unless they have set up a
government office.
This conference starts the rush for Africa.
European nations send officials to begin
exerting control and maintaining a
presence in certain areas.
The Scramble
In 20 years, most of Africa was
under imperial control. The
exceptions: Ethiopia and
Liberia
The English and French
controlled a majority of Africa
Africans fight back
Some African nations fought back, but were mostly unsuccessful. Only Ethiopia
and Liberia successfully remained independent.
Ethiopia is an ancient Christian Kingdom.
King Menelik II reformed the nation in the
1800s, building roads, bridges, and
purchasing weapons from Europe.
When Italy invaded in 1896 Ethiopia was
ready and fought them off.
The Boer War 1899-1902
The English acquired Cape Colony from the
Dutch. The original Dutch settlers, the Boers,
resented British rule and moved north of the
colony. In the new settlements they found
Gold.
The British and the Boers both laid claim to
the gold, sparking a war between the two.
The British won and united the Boer
republic and Cape Colony into the Union of
South Africa with a new constitution.
This new constitution set up Apartheid- a
system of strict racial segregation.
Suez Canal
After Muhammad Ali reformed
Egypt and entered the World Trade
market, French entrepreneur Cecil
John Rhodes, built the Suez Canal.
The canal links the Mediterranean
Sea to the Red Sea. It opened in
1869
The British soon extended its
control over Egypt to control the
canal.
What is the importance of the
canal?
Review
Which is an accurate statement about the
partitioning of Africa by European
imperialist nations during the 1800’s?
1. new nations were based on old tribal
boundaries
2. the cultural and ethnic diversity of the
African people was disregarded
3. the continent was divided equally among
the colonial powers
4. African unity was encouraged
Review
After 1880, European nations sought colonies in
Africa primarily because the Europeans were
1. in need of land for their surplus populations
2. competing for raw materials and markets
3. determined to bring Christianity to the Moslem
world
4. interested in completing their geographic
knowledge of the world
Review
The 19th century term “White Man’s Burden”
reflects the idea that
1. Asians and Africans were equal to Europeans
2. Asians and Africans would be grateful for
European help
3. imperialism was opposed by most Europeans
4. Europeans had a responsibility to improve
the lives of the colonial peoples
Review
In the past, European nations have conquered
other lands, made them into colonies, and
controlled their economies.
Which term refers to the situation described
in this statement?
1. socialism
2. isolationism
3. imperialism
4. monotheism
Review
During the 18th and 19th centuries, increased
contact between Europe and the continents of
Africa, Asia, and South America resulted in
1. closer cultural cooperation between Europe and
these continents
2. the exploitation of the labor and resources of
these continents
3. a return to the political and economic systems of
feudal Europe
4. preservation of the rights of the indigenous
peoples
http://regentsprep.org/Regents/core/question
s/question.cfm?Course=GLOB&TopicCode=6i&
QNum=2&Wrong=0
Review
During the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans
improved roads and bridges and built
railroads in their colonies primarily to
1. provide jobs for the colonists
2. obtain raw materials needed for
industrialization
3. impress the colonists with their technological
knowledge
4. help missionaries spread Christianity

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