WORLD WAR I AND ITS AFTERMATH A Bloody Conflict LEARNING TARGETS After this lesson you will: Understand the nature of trench warfare Recognize the new weapons developed during WWI Know to what the nickname “doughboy” refers Relate Vladimir Lenin’s rise to leadership in Russia with Russia’s withdrawal from the war Describe the major battles of WWI Recognize the military leaders of WWI Know when the fighting stopped Analyze Wilson’s Fourteen Points doctrine Understand the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles Describe the U.S. reaction to the Treaty of Versailles Understand U.S. involvement in the League of Nations COMBAT IN WORLD WAR I Trench Warfare The rapid fire machine gun changed the nature of warfare On the Western Front, troops dug trenches to “hide” in from the English Channel to the Swiss Border “No Man’s Land” COMBAT IN WORLD WAR I New Technology Poison gas used for the first time The tank was introduced AIRPLANES!!! THE AMERICANS AND VICTORY: “Doughboys” Winning the War at Sea Convoys Russia leaves the War In 1917 riots broke out in Russia over the war and a lack of food and fuel Czar Nicholas II left the thrown The Boshevik communist political party led by Vladimir Lenin took control and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk THE AMERICANS AND VICTORY The German Offensive Falters March 21, 1918—The Germans launch a massive attack and move within 40 miles of Paris March 28, 1918—American troops launch a counter-attack and capture Cantigny. May 31, 1918—American and French troops block the German advance to Paris at Chateau-Thierry July 15, 1918—German’s launch one last attack to take Paris. THE AMERICANS AND VICTORY: The Battle of Argonne Forest French Marshall Ferdinand Foch—Supreme Commander of Allied Forces Ordered massive counter-attacks all along the Western Front Drove back German forces at Saint-Mihiel General John J. Pershing—led 600,000 troops, 40,000 tons of supplies, and 4,000 artillery pieces the most massive American attack in history Between the Meuse River and the Argonne Forest (September 26, 1918) Americans took on heavy casualties German defenses had been shattered and a massive hole in the German lines formed A FLAWED PEACE The War Ends Revolution took place in Austria-Hungary The Ottoman-Turks surrender The German people rebel and force their emperor to step down At the 11th hour, on the 11th day, in the 11th month of 1918—the fighting just sort of…stopped. (Armistice Day) A FLAWED PEACE The “Big Four” President Wilson (U.S.), David Loyd George (G.B.), Georges Clemenceau (France), Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Met to decide what should be done after the war Wilson presented his “14 Points” to congress in Jan. 1918 Wanted to form a “general association of nations” (League of Nations which would later fail). This would be the front runner of the United Nations Today. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Three of the “Big Four” (all except Wilson) wanted to punish Germany for the war. Germany was stripped of its armed forces Germany was made to pay $33 billion dollars Germany was to acknowledge guilt for WWI. The Russian, Ottoman, German, and AustriaHungarian Empires were dissolved. Yugoslavia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia created. Wilson was disappointed in the harsh treatment of Germany but was glad that the League of Nations would be formed. The U.S. Senate rejected the treaty! REVIEW QUESTIONS What was the nature of trench warfare? What were the new weapons developed during WWI? To what does the nickname “doughboy” refer? How did Vladimir Lenin’s rise to leadership in Russia result in Russia’s withdrawal from the war? What were the major battles of WWI? Who were the military leaders of WWI? When did the fighting stop? What were the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? What was the U.S. reaction to the Treaty of Versailles? What was the U.S. involvement in the League of Nations? ESSAY QUESTION Describe Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan by summarizing the main purpose of the first five points, then the next eight points, and finally the fourteenth point. ESSAY QUESTION Describe Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan by summarizing the main purpose of the first five points, then the next eight points, and finally the fourteenth point. In the first five points, President Wilson proposed to eliminate the general causes of war through free trade, disarmament, freedom of the seas, impartial adjustment of colonial claims, and open diplomacy instead of secret agreements. The next eight points addressed the right of selfdetermination. They also required the Central Powers to evacuate all of the countries invaded during the war. The fourteenth point called for the creation of the League of Nations. The League's member nations would help preserve peace and prevent future wars by pledging to respect and protect each other’s territory and political independence.