World War I

World War I
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
2.Triple Alliance
4.Triple Entente
5. Kaiser Wilhelm II
Critical Thinking
1.How did imperialism and
militarism work together to
promote war?
2. How did nationalism
contribute to the unrest in the
Rising Tensions in Europe
• The Rise of Nationalism- Nationalism is a deep
devotion to one’s country. This devotion led to an
increasing rivalry between Europe’s Great
powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Great
Britain, Russia, Italy and France.
• Imperialism and Militarism- The European
nations competed fiercely for colonies in Africa
and Asia. That competition pushed European
countries to the brink of war. It led to rivalry and
mistrust among the European nations. The policy
of militarism was adopted to prepare for possible
wars. The policy led to many nations keeping
large and strong standing armies that were able
to quickly mobilize and move troops if war broke
out between rival nations.
Tangled Alliances
Several military alliances among the Great Powers developed as
a response to rivalries and distrust. The system was designed to
keep peace but instead it would push Europe into WWI.
• Bismarck Forges Early Pacts- After unifying Germany,
Bismarck formed alliances to prevent war with France. The
Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria- Hungary and Italy
was formed in 1881.
• Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace- In 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II
forced Bismarck to resign. Wilhelm let his treaty with Russia
lapse. Russia responded by forming an alliance with France. If
Germany went to war with France and Russia then Germany
would be forced to fight a two front war. Germany responded
to the alliance by trying to build a navy as big as Britain’s.
Britain responded by forming the Triple Entente with France
and Russia.
Crisis in the Balkans
• A Restless Region- The Balkan Peninsula was home
to an assortment of ethnic groups. The area has a
long history of national uprisings and ethnic
clashes, known as the “powder keg” of Europe.
• A Shot Rings Throughout Europe- The Austrian
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in
Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist group. The
assassination led Austria to declare war on Serbia.
The Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Read the primary source. Analyze the Serbian
motivations for the assassination of the Archduke
Franz Ferdinand.
Write a newspaper article about the assassination.
Write the article from the view point of Serbian
nationalist or an Austrian. Include a title, picture and
explanation of the event.
Use the vocabulary terms:
Alliance System
WWI was caused by a series
of events and motivations.
Please identify the causes
that contributed to the start
of WWI.
Chapter 13 Section 2
1. Central Powers
2. Allies
3. Western Front
4. Schlieffen Plan
5. Trench Warfare
6. Eastern Front
The Great War Begins
In response to Austria’s declaration of war,
Russia(Serbia’s ally) mobilized for war against
Germany. Germany declared war against Russia and
France. Great Britain declared war on Germany.
Nations Take Sides
Central Powers
Allied Powers
Great Britain
The Conflict Grinds Along- Germany developed the
Schlieffen Plan as a strategy for fighting a two front
war. The plan was to attack/defeat France in the
west then rush to east to fight Russia. After the first
major battle the battle of the Marne, Germany
realized a quick victory in the west was not a
possibility. This forced Germany to fight on two
War in the Trenches- By 1915, both opposing
armies dug miles of trenches to protect themselves
from enemy fire. To gain territory men were sent
out of the trenches into “no man’s land”(the space
between opposing trenches) where they were met
with machine gun fire. This led to heavy causalities
for both sides and a stalemate on the western front.
The Battle on the Eastern Front
The area that stretched between the German and
Russia border was known as the Eastern Front.
Early Fighting- In the beginning of the war, Russia
had a series of victories against the Germans and
Russia Struggles- By 1916, Russia’s army faced
shortages on food, guns, ammunition,
clothes/boots and blankets. Allied supply shipments
were limited by German control of the Baltic Sea.
The Russian army had one asset that helped them
throughout the war, the number of men in the
army. The heavy losses throughout the war were
counteracted by the country’s enormous
Postcard from the Front
Life in the trenches was dangerous and
miserable for soldiers on both opposing sides.
After reading about life in the trenches, imagine
you are a soldier on the western or eastern
front. Write a postcard home that describes the
conditions in the trenches and your experiences
at the front. Include military technology used.
Chapter 13 Section 3
1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
2. Total War
3. Rationing
4. Propaganda
5. Armistice
War Affects the World
The Gallipoli Campaign- The Allied effort to defeat Germany
included gaining control of the Dardanelles. This effort was
known as the Gallipoli campaign. The campaign ended in a
stalemate, the Allies gave up and evacuated.
America Joins the Fight- In 1915,German U-boats sunk the
passenger ship the Lusitania killing 128 U.S. citizens. After the
sinking, Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral ships. In
1917, Germany was desperate for an advantage over the
Allies and intensified their use of unrestricted submarine
warfare. Another German action pushed the Americans into
the war. In February of 1917, the American government
intercepted a telegram from the German foreign secretary
Arthur Zimmerman that stated if Mexico allied itself with
Germany than Germany would help Mexico regain the
territory it lost in the Mexican- American War. As a result, the
United States declared war on Germany.
War Affects the Home Front
Governments Wage Total War- Countries devoted
all their resources to the war effort. Total war
meant that the government took control of the
economy. They told the factories what to produce
and how much. Facilities were turned into
munitions factories and all able bodied citizens
were required to work. Goods were rationed. The
government used propaganda to increase morale
for the war effort.
Women and the War- Women were needed to help
the war effort. Women replaced men in factories,
offices and shops. Women were also involved in the
war effort on the front lines as nurses.
The Allies Win the War
Russia Withdraws- Due to shortages of food and
fuel Russia withdrew from WWI. In 1917, Russia
faced revolution and communist leader Vladimir
Lenin seized power.
The Central Powers Collapse- After Russia withdrew
from the war, Germany focused their energy on
France. With help and more soldiers from the
United States the Germans were defeated and
forced to surrender. An armistice was signed
between France and Germany on November 11,
1918 and WWI ended.
The Legacy of the War
The level of destruction from WWI was on a
grand and global scale. Both sides had
tremendous loss of human life. 8.5 million
soldiers died and 21 million were wounded. The
war had a huge economic impact on Europe the
total cost was approximately $338 billion
dollars. Much of Europe was destroyed, and
there was a deep scar on society as well.
Critical Thinking
1. What effect did the Russian
Revolution have on Russia’s role
in WWI?
2. Why did wartime
governments take control of
their countries economies?
1.List two reasons governments
used propaganda.
2.Explain rationing.
Propaganda Poster
During World War I, both Allied
and Central Powers generated
propaganda designed to create a
negative view of the enemy and
support for their own cause.
1. Demonizing the Enemy by
portraying them as “monsters’ and glorifying
the allies by portraying them as “heroes.”
2. A Call to join the armed forces
3. Promoting the practice of rationing and
4. Encouraging people, especially women, to
join the work-force and insure war supplies are
5. Persuading people to buy war bonds to help
finance (pay for) the war.
Governments and Organizations use
propaganda for the purpose of:
–Spreading or promoting an idea,
belief, or cause.
–Convincing people to accept or
support an idea, belief, or cause
–Influencing public opinion and
–Calling people to ACTION!
Propaganda Poster
1. Cover assigned topic, (You Choose!)
2. Convince people to action.
3. Include a slogan that conveys the
4. Include at least one symbol in the
form of an artistic drawing
5. Be creative, neat and presentable
6. On the back of the poster write at least
one complete paragraph that explains:
How does it qualify as propaganda?
Chapter 13 Section 4
1. Woodrow Wilson
2. George Clemenceau
3. Self-determination
4. Treaty of Versailles
5. Fourteen Points
6. League of Nations
The Allies Meet and Debate
Wilson’s Plan for Peace- U.S. President Woodrow
Wilson drew up a series of peace proposals
known as the Fourteen Points.
The Versailles Treaty- The Treaty of Versailles
was signed between Germany and France on
June 28, 1919. The treaty created a League of
Nations that was designed to keep peace among
nations. The treaty also included a “war guilt
clause” that blamed Germany with sole
responsibility for the war. Germany was stripped
of their colonial possessions as well.
A Troubled Treaty
“A Peace Built on Quicksand”- In the end, the
Treaty of Versailles did not create a lasting
peace. The United States rejected the treaty and
believed it was best to stay out of European
affairs. The Treaty of Versailles left a legacy of
bitterness and hatred in the hearts of the
German people. This bitterness would be a key
reason for the start of WWII.
Geography Skillbuilder
Use Page 426
1. Which Central Powers nation appears to have
lost the most territory?
2. On which nation’s former lands were the most
of the new countries created?
Critical Thinking
1. Explain the “war guilt clause”.
2. Why was the United States
fearful of the League of Nations
and choose to not join?
How would you feel if you were part of a
disagreement between a group of friends, and
the friends met to resolve the disagreement and
decided to blame you for the entire situation.
How would you feel? Do you think it’s fair to
blame one person for a situation with multiple
cause and parties involved?
G- Geography
R- Religion
A- Achievements
P- Political
E- Economics
S- Social Structure

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