Medieval Times Unit 7: Medieval Society (Chapters 13 & 14) SSWH7 The student will analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. a. Explain the manorial system and feudalism; include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne. b.Describe the political impact of Christianity; including Gregory VII and King Henry IV of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor). c. Explain the role of the church in medieval society. d.Describe how increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities. Manorial System and Feudalism • Manorial System • Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land • Feudalism • Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services. A powerful noble granted land to a lesser noble. Ownership of the land remained with the noble who made the grant. A person who granted land was a lord and the grant of land was called a fief. The person who received the fief was a vassal—creating a contract between them. Manors were large farming estates that included manor houses, cultivated lands, woodlands, pastures, fields, and villages. A lord kept 1/3 of his land; 2/3 peasants— gave lord portion of their crop and helped farm his 1/3 •Also called serfs •Back breaking work in the fields •Could not leave land without the lord’s permission •Could not hunt on the lord’s land •Rarely ate meat •Limited life expectancy •Most lived, worked, and died in village where they were born Feudal Monarchies Castle fortified base; where the lord enforced his authority Chivalry a code of conduct; system of rules that dictated knight’s behavior toward others Code of Chivalry •Courageous in battle •Fight fairly •Loyal •Honesty •Treat his conquered foes gallantly •Courteous to women •Required to extend courtesy to people of his own class Becoming a Knight Boy had to belong to the noble class Had to pass through 2 stages of training 1st stage age 7; knight’s page or attendant had to learn knightly manners how to use and care for weapons 2nd stage teenage; squire or knight’s assistant take care of horses, armor, & weapons later may accompany knight into battle Code of Arms •Identified a knight •Graphic symbol •Represented his personal characteristics •On his shield or outer coat, flag, or horse trappings AD 400s-1500 Transition Period in the EuropeanMiddle Ages Time in history between the end of the Classical Age and the beginning of the Modern World Many Germanic tribes plundered Europe and established small kingdoms one tribe The Franks (France name after this group) —lasting impact on Europe – helped shaped this new culture of post-Roman Europe The Pope needed the Franks to help against the Lombards ( Germanic tribe attacking central Rome). The Frankish ruler, Pepin (AD 751) defeats the Lombards. The territory is given to the Pope is called “Donation of Pepin”— created the Papal States Paves the way for Charlemagne—Pepin’s son and greatest of all Frankish Kings Charlemagne (r. AD 768-814) Brought civilization, order, and learning to barbarian Europe Spread Church teachings and beliefs Declared Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day , AD 800 at St. Peter’s Basilica Search wrt 30 utf-8 yfp-t-701 Charlemagne United much of western Europe for the first time in 400 years. Cultural rebirth throughout Europe supported education created libraries sponsored the collection and copying of ancient Roman manuscripts Produced a readable Bible that was used throughout his empire. Forced people to convert to Christianity. His officials were called missi dominici or “the lord’s messengers.” His rule was a model for later kings in medieval Europe The Church • Had broad political powers ( Europe’s central governments were weak). • It was the most powerful institution. • Power extended through every social/political levels. • Leading landowner • Source of leadership and stability for the community. Clergy organized to a strict hierarchy of rank The Pope supreme leader The Cardinals “princes of the Church” Archbishop Over several dioceses Bishop over diocese (a group of parishes) Parish lowest rank—served people in the parish Monks and Nuns Lived in monasteries and convents Believed they had to withdraw from the world and its temptations to live a Christian life. Role was to take care of the needy . The Church—great political, economic, and social influence across most of Europe • The Popeboth religious and political leader; had spiritual power over all monarchs • The Churchhad own code of law, canon law had own courts • Christiansfear of excommunication could not receive sacraments could not be buried in sacred ground Church Power continued • The church court could issue an interdictall churches in that region could be closed. • No Sacraments • No burials • No marriages • Eternal punishment This tactic could be used to turn a region’s people against a ruler!! Church Power continued • • • • Anyone who opposed the church heresy Church had power to tax Tithe Large income from owning lands Wealthiest single institute in Europe Problems of the Church • Lay investiture—a wealthy noble appointing a friend or relative to be a bishop or abbot. • Simony—People could buy high positions within the church hierarchy. • Inquisition—the search for heretics—some burned at the stake The church was an ever present facet of the average man's life. From baptism, to marriage, and finally to death it supported, structured, and sometimes hurt every single person in the medieval community. Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV The struggle between Henry and Gregory reflected the clash between church and state that was a continuing issue in the Middle Ages. Pope Gregory VII Henry IV • Devout • Brought spiritual reform to the church • Increased the power and authority of the papacy. • Felt that rulers and ordinary people alike were subject to the will of the church and its pope. • Used excommunication as a way to resolve conflicts of church and state. • Came to the throne at the age of 5. • At age of 15, Henry moved to strengthened his imperial rule. • Believed that he had the power to appoint bishops of the church—lay investiture. • Actions brought him into conflict with Pope Gregory VII. Excommunication for Henry by the Pope Henry sought the Pope’s mercy. Winter of 1077—traveled to meet Pope at Canossa, Italy. Pope made Henry wait 3 days in the bitter cold . Henry pleaded for the pope’s mercy. Pope revoked Henry’s excommunication. However—struggle of lay investiture continued!!! • AD 1122, representatives of both sides met in the German city of Worms • Agreement reached—known as the Concordat of Worms • Limited imperial power over the church • Emperor allowed to appoint bishops to the fiefs (a tenure of land subject to feudal obligations). • Pope had the only power to name bishops , whose spiritual authority came directly from the church. The Crusades Late 1000s Seljuq Turks, Muslims gained control of Palestine—”Holy Land” They threatened Constantinople (capital of Byzantine Empire) Byzantine emperor called on Pope Urban II (Rome) to regain the Holy Land from the Turks The Crusades • 10,000 Europeans took up the cause • Sewed a cross of cloth on their clothes • Some went to save their souls. (believed if they died on crusade = straight to heaven) • Some hoped to gain land and wealth • Some saw a chance to make money • The Crusades appealed to a love of adventure and the promise of rewards, both spiritual and material. Four Crusades 1st- AD 1096-1099 For almost 100 years, Europe held Palestine 2nd-AD 1147-1149 Crusaders return to Europe 3rd-1189-1192 Truce-Crusaders received control of some towns; allowed Christians to enter Jerusalem freely 4th-AD 1202-1291 Crusaders attacked Christian cities (Constantinople) Constantinople collapsed in 1453 The Children’s Crusade of 1212 • European children decided to march to the Holy Land and regain it for Christian Europe. • Lacked training, equipment, and supplies. • Some returned home by the time they reach Mediterranean coast. • Others reached southern France, tricked into boarding ships that carried them off into slavery. • Several thousand children died During the Crusades, thousands of crusaders traveled through the Holy Land. Ideas were exchanged Knowledge gained from the Byzantines and Muslims whom they met. These new ideas helped to enrich European culture = Cultural Diffusion Italy was the earliest site of the trade Changes in trade also took place. revival. Italian cities became major trading centers. Ships from Italian cities carried crusaders to the Holy Land. Foods were brought back from southwest Asia. Europeans began buying apricots, lemons, melons, rice, and sugar As trade grew, merchants needed places where they could exchange goodsmarkets and fairgrounds ( entertainment with clowns, jugglers, and muscians). 3 Important business developments occurred: 1. a new system of manufacturing 2. a banking system developed 3. and the practice of investing wealth started. Manufacturing Domestic system— manufacturing took place in homes rather than a shop or factory Market Economy— land, labor, and capital are controlled by individual persons. Banking The lending of money Investing Capital—wealth that is earned, saved, and The charging of interest on invested to make profits. loans for business matters Partnerships –new Bills of exchange—easier businesses to move money from one place to another With trade cities began to grow! Merchants and workers began to unite in association called guilds.