RUSH PROTOCOL Rapid Ultrasound for Shock

Report
Ultrasound (US)-- “resuscitative.”
 Patients with hypotension or shock
 Ultrasound is ideal for the evaluation of critically ill
patients in shock, and ACEP guidelines
 Direct visualization of pathology and differentiation of
shock states.
 The RUSH Protocol first introduced in 2006 by Weingart
SD et al, and later published in 2009. It was designed to
be a rapid and easy to perform US protocol (<2 min) by
most emergency physicians.
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What US probes do you need for the RUSH protocol?
Phased-array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)
Linear probe (7.5 – 10 MHz)
What are the components of the RUSH protocol?
The components of the RUSH exam are: Heart, Inferior
vena cava (IVC), Morrison’s/FAST abdominal views, Aorta,
and Pneumothorax (HI-MAP).
 A more simple method is to think of:
 Pump (Heart): Tamponade, LVEF, and RV size
 Tank (Intravascular): IVC, thoracic and abdominal
compartments
 Pipes (Large Arteries/Veins): Aorta and femoral/popliteal
veins
Summary Table
Resuscitation 2013 conference
How do you evaluate the PUMP?
 Component: Heart (parasternal long axis view)
 Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)
 Location: Just left of the sternum, 3rd and 4th intercostal
space
 Finding: Pericardial effusion (tamponade)
 Small effusions are best identified posterior to left ventricle
(dependent portion of pericardium)
 Can find compression of the right ventricle (Singh S et al
Sens 92%, Spec 100%, PPV 100%)
 Finding: Left ventricular ejection fraction estimation
 Look at anterior leaflet of mitral valve, which should
normally touch septum
 <30% difference of LV size between systole and diastole
indicates severely decreased LV function
 Finding: Right ventricular strain
 Normally RV should be 60% of LV size (If RV = LV size, this is
abnormal)
 Lodato JC et al: If McConnell Sign (reduction in RV free wall
motility with sparing of the apex) is present, specificity for
PE is 96%, but sensitivity is 16%.
 Component: Heart (Subxiphoid)
 Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)
 Location: Subxiphoid, point toward left scapula
How do you evaluate the TANK?
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Component: Inferior Vena Cava
Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)
Location: Subxiphoid, slide to patient's right
Finding: Intravascular volume estimation
 IVC <2 cm in diameter and inspiratory collapse greater than
50% approximates CVP <10 cmH20
 IVC >2 cm in diameter and inspiratory collapse less than
50% approximates CVP >10 cmH20
 Not applicable for intubated patients. Spontaneously
breathing patients create negative intrathoracic pressure.
ventilated patients create positive intrathoracic pressure.
 Component: FAST abdominal views
 Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)
 Location: Hepatorenal recess, Splenorenal recess, and
bladder
 Finding: Internal blood loss
 Component: Pneumothorax
 Probe: Linear probe (7.5 – 10 MHz)
 Location: Midclavicular line, 3rd – 5th intercostal space
 Finding: Intrathoracic compromise
 Normal: Should see lung sliding and comet tails. M-Mode
will look like "waves on a beach".
 Pneumothorax present: NO lung sliding and NO comet tails.
M-Mode will look like a "bar graph" (no beach).
How do you evaluate the PIPES?
 Component: Aorta
 Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)
 Location: Longitudinal and transverse views of aorta at 4
levels (infracardiac, suprarenal, infrarenal, and right at the
iliac bifurcation)
 Measurement >3 cm is abnormal. If >5 cm consider
ruptured AAA if no other cause found.
 Most AAAs located below the renal arteries
RUSH protocol to medical patients
EFAST exam to trauma patients.

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