Chapter 9

Report
Chapter 9
Caribbean South America
Map
Vocabulary
 Cordillera,
is a mountain system made up
of roughly parallel ranges
 Tepuis, is an unusual flat-topped formation
 Gurrillas, or members of an irregular
military force
 Llaneros, or Venezuelan cowboys
 Strike, a group of workers stopping until
their demands are met
 Referendum, or recall vote
Section 1
Physical Geography
Further Research
Orinoco River
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Flows for 1,700 miles
Flows through Venezuela and
between Venezuela and
Colombia
Hydro-electric plants are built
on the river
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Computers help direct
electricity to steel mills and
aluminum plants and distinct
cities
Home to Indians
Home to the world’s largest
rodent
Angel Falls
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World’s largest waterfall
Is named after Jimmy
Angel who was a pilot
and saw the waterfall
for the first time in 1933
Drops more than 3,200
feet
Since the height is so
high the water turns into
fog before it hits the
bottom
Physical Features and Wildlife
Mountains and
Highlands
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Highest point in
Colombia
The Andes reach 8,000 ft
and form a cordillera
Venezuela’s highest
point is the Guiana
Highlands, resists erosion
The tepuis rises about
6,000 ft, about the
plains.
Plains, Rivers, and
Wildlife
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Llanos, grassland without many
trees
Orinoco flows about 1,600 miles
Caucat and Magalena are two
other important rivers
Lots of wildlife; 100’s of bird species,
piranhas, and crocodiles
One of world’s highest
concentrations of plants and
animal species
Jagurs, ocelots, and species of
monhies
Climate and Vegetation
 Most
of the region has warm
temperatures year-round because it’s
near the equator
 Temperature varies with elevation
 The Llanos region has a tropical savanna
climate.
 Rainforests thrive in southern Colombia
 Southern Colombia is part of the Amazon
Basin. Here rain falls throughout the year.
Resources
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Caribbean South America is a rich agricultural region
because of its soil and moderate climates.
Major crops- rice, coffee, bananas, and sugarcane.
Resources- oil, iron ore, and coal.
Forests throughout the region provide timber.
The seas provide fish and shrimp.
The region’s major rivers are used to generate
hydroelectric power.
Venezuela’s Canaima National Park covers about 3 million
acres of eastern Venezuela.
One of the world’s largest national parks.
Angel falls is the world’s highest waterfalls (drops 3,200ft.).
Assessment Questions
1a) Where are the
Andes located?
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The Andes are
located on the
west side of
Colombia.
1b) How are the rock formations
called tepuis unusual?
 The
tepuis are
unusual because
they are sandstone
layers that have
resisted erosion;
thus making the
landscape unusual
and different.
1c) Why do the Llanos in Columbia
and Venezuela flood easily?
 The
Llanos in
Colombia and
Venezuela flood
easily because
they are mostly
grassland and
have a low
elevation.
2a) In the Andes, how does the
temperature change with
elevation?
 The
temperature in
the Andes changes
with elevation. The
higher you go the
colder it gets. The
snow-capped
peaks are also
active volcanos.
2b) How does the region’s location
near the equator affect it’s climate?
 Being
closer to the
equator would
make the
temperature warm
all year long and
not really have
seasons.
3a) What is the major resource in
both Venezuela and Columbia?
 Venezuela
and
Colombia both
have large oil-rich
areas.
3b) Which resource provides
hydroelectric power?
 The
areas major
rivers provide them
with hydroelectric
power.
Section 2
Colombia
Further Research
 Giants
mounds of Earth, mysterious
statues, and tombs are the marks of
ancient people
 Important cities are
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Cali
Bogota
Medellin
Barranquilla
Graphic Organizer
Government
 Having
trouble with
guerilla rebels
 Enforcing laws
against them
Holidays
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New Years
Epiphani
St. Josephs Day
Easter
Labor Day
Ascension of Jesus
Corpus Christ
Declaration of
Independence
Current Events
 14
rebels killed in
military raid
 Colombia
president deploys
50,000 troops after
protest
 9 die in bomb blast
Sports
 Main
sport is soccer
 Tejo, a Colombian
original sport
Resources
 Gold
 Coffee
 Bananas
 Cotton
 Sugarcane
Colombia’s History
The Chibcha
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The Chibcha were
metal workers,
potters, and
weavers.
Chibcha made the
legend of El Dorado
The Chibcha made
the drug called
Cocaine
Spanish Conquest
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In the 1500s the Spanish arrived
in South America
The Spanish conquered the
Chibcha and found treasure
Spain founded colonies in the
Caribbean Coast
Carta Gena was a major naval
base and commercial port
Spanish set up large estates in
Colombia
South Americans and Africans
worked there
Independence
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In the 1700s people began
struggling for
independence
After they claimed
independence, they
formed the Gran Columbia
The Republic of Gran
Colombia included
Colombia, Panama,
Ecuador, and Venezuela.
In 1830 the republic
dissolved
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After the republic resolved,
New Granada formed
They debated if the Roman
Catholic Church should
participate in government
and education
Outbreaks of violence
occurred throughout the
1800s and 1900s killed
thousands
Colombia Today
Colombia Today
 Bogota
is
Colombia’s capitol
 More than 40 years
of civil war have
been destructive
to it’s economy
People and Culture
 Most
Colombians
live in fertile valleys
and river basins
among the
mountain ranges
 The geography of
Colombia isolates
people
Economy
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Major exports include
bananas, sugarcane, and
cotton
Many farms produce flour
Columbia’s major export is
oil
More exports are iron ore,
gold, and coal
Most emeralds come from
Columbia
Civil War
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Guerrillas forced farmers off their
land
Thousands flee the country
because of the war
Guerrillas use the coca plant to
make cocaine
The United States provides
assistance to Columbia
Columbia is the recipients of US aid
The fighting has lasted 40 years
Columbia is the number one
country in the world to produce
and traffic cocaine
Assessment Questions
1a) Who were the
Chibcha?
 The
Chibcha were
a Native American
tribe before the
Spanish killed them.
1b) Why did Spain want
land in Colombia?
 The
Spanish
wanted land in
Colombia because
they wanted to
expand their new
empire.
2a) What factors make Colombia
ideal for growing coffee?
 Factors
that make
Colombia good for
growing coffee are
it’s rich soils, steep
slopes, and tall
shade trees.
2b) In what part of the country
do most Colombians live?
 Most
Colombians
live in the fertile
valleys and river
basins at the ridges
of mountains. The
climate is
moderate which is
good for farming.
2c) How might Colombia solve the
problem of guerrillas trying to
control the country?
 They
could
continue to make
more laws against
them, or start
arresting them. The
U.S. could help out
some more.
Section 3
Venezuela and the Guianas
Further Research
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Fiesta De Las Cruces – Honors the Holy Cross of May in the states of Mirands and Aragua as
it’s patriots
Federation Day – Marks the start of the 4 year long federal war
Current president: Nicolas Maduro
Federal Republic
Presidential system
Federation and socialist state
Exports are:
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Petroleum
Steel
Agricultural products
Sports are soccer and baseball
Venezuela won 7th Miss Universe contest
New national holiday celebrating Hugo Chaves
Caracas is the capitol
Maracaibo is the largest populated city
Other key cities are
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Valencia
Barquisimeto
Venezuela
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Spanish Settlement
and Colonial Rules
Conquered by
Spanish in early
1500’s
Forced Indians to
work hard; many
died
Spanish brought
Africans to the
Indians places
People and Culture
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Venezuela people
descended from
Native Indians,
Europeans, and
Africans
Indians make up 2% of
population
Most people are
Spanish speaking
Roman Catholics
Independence and
Self Rule
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Bolivar helped win
Venezuela’s
independence from
Spain in 1821
Through 1800’s
Venezuela suffered from
dictatorship and civil
wars
Leaders kept the
county’s oil money for
themselves
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Economy and
Natural Resources
1960 Venezuela
began earing huge
sums of money from
oil production
Big population still
lives in poverty
Economy is based on
oil production
Government
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Suffered years of
dictatorship; finally got
president in 1959
Since then,
government has dealt
with economic turmoil
and political protests
People wanted
president to resign, he
returned
Guianas
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The countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French
Guiana are together known as the Guianas.
Tropical rain forests cover much of this region.
Guyana comes from a South American Indian word
that means “land of waters.”
About one-third of the country’s population lives in
Georgetown.
Guyana’s lands are flat, fertile plains along the coast.
Immigrants came to work on the sugar plantations.
Today, they have small plots of land for small
businesses.
About 1/3 of the population are decedents from
former African slaves.
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Suriname has similar resources and economy of
Guyana.
They have a diverse population.
Population is made up of South Asians, Africans,
Chinese, Indonesians, and Creoles.
Capitol is Paramaribo, it is half the population.
French Guiana is a French territory.
It’s population is about 200,000 people.
Two-thirds of the population is African.
Other types of people are Europeans, Asians, and
South American Indians.
They depend heavily on imports.
Assessment Questions
1a) What did Spanish settlers
hope to find in Venezuela?
 Spanish
came
hoping to find gold
and pearls.
1b) Who led Venezuela’s
revolt against Spain?
 Simon
Bolivar led
Venezuela’s revolt
against Spain.
2a) What does the landscape
of Caracas include?
 Caracas
consists of
modern subway
systems, busy
expressways, and
tall office buildings.
2b) How is oil important to
Venezuela’s economy?
 They
earn huge
sums of money
through oil
production.
2c) Why did some
Venezuelans go on strike?
 They
went on strike
because they
wanted the
president to resign.
3a) What are Guyana’s agricultural
lands and products like?
 They
are located
on flat, fertile
plains.
3b) How is population of the
Guianas different from that of
Columbia and Venezuela?
 Guiana’s
population is
diverse and
Columbia and
Venezuela are not
diverse

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